Management and control issues for native, invasive species (Reed canarygrass): Evaluating philosophical, management, and legislative issues

Neil O. Anderson, Alan G. Smith, Andrzej K. Noyszewski, Emi Ito, Diana Dalbotten, Holly Pellerin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The issue of native invasive species management rarely occurs and is fraught with biological, social, and economic challenges as well as posing difficulties in decision-making for land managers. The terminology for categorization of invasive species is examined in the context of their bias(es), which complicates control. An example of a newly determined native species, which is also invasive, is used as an example to navigate control and regulatory issues. Native, invasive reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) occurs throughout Minnesota and most likely the entire midwest region of central United States and Canadian provinces. The species was previously assumed to be an exotic, nonnative Eurasian import but recent molecular evidence supports its status as a native but invasive species. We address how this change to being a native but highly invasive species modifies approaches to mitigate its potential control for state, Tribal, and local authorities. The implications of these new findings will require differential shifts in land managers’ perspectives and approaches for control. Particular differences may exist for Tribal Land Managers vs. departments of natural resources and private agencies. Additionally, regulatory challenges have yet to be decided on how to legislate control for a native invasive species that had been previously assumed as exotic or foreign in origin. These opportunities to change attitudes and implement judicial control measures will serve as a template for other invasive species that are native in origin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-366
Number of pages13
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding in support of this publication was from the Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center; the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station; Czech–US American Science Information Center (AMVIS); Ministry of Education, Czech Republic, University of South Bohemia in Cesk≤ ≤e Bud≤ejovice; European Union Education for Competitiveness Operational Programme; and the J. William Fulbright Scholar Program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


  • Cryptogenic species
  • Evolution
  • Herbaceous ornamentals
  • Invasion terminology
  • Phalaris arundinacea


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