This project was initiated with the goal of investigating the malt quality of winter rye cultivars and hybrids grown in the United States in 2014 and 2015, but high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) were subsequently found in many of the malt samples. DON levels in 75% of the investigated rye samples (n = 117) were actually below 1.0 mg/kg, as quantified by a gas chromatography combined with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). However, 83% of the samples had DON in excess of 1.0 mg/kg following malting, and the average DON level in malted rye was 10.6 mg/kg. In addition, relatively high levels of 3-acetate DON (3-ADON), 15-acetate DON (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and DON-3-glucoside (D3G) were observed in some rye malts. Our results show that rye grain DON is likely a poor predicator of type B trichothecenes in malt in practice, because high levels of malt DON, 15-ADONm and D3G were produced, even when the rye samples with DON levels below 0.50 mg/kg were processed. Fusarium Tri5 DNA content in rye was highly associated with malt DON levels (r = 0.83) in a small subset of samples (n = 55). The impact of Fusarium infection on malt quality was demonstrated by the significant correlations between malt DON levels and wort viscosity, β-glucan content, wort color, wort p-coumaric acid content, and total phenolic content. Additional correlations of rye Fusarium Tri5 DNA contents with malt diastatic power (DP), wort free amino nitrogen (FAN) content, and arabinoxylan content were observed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Agreement No. 59-0206-9-064). This is a cooperative project with the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
- malting quality
- Tri5 DNA
- type B trichothecenes
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.