Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
VA activities following the summit included a systematic review on the effects of CIH on pain and opioid use, an expert planning meeting to frame a larger discussion about approaches to chronic pain, and a State-Of-The-Art Conference on the broader topic of non-opioid therapies in November 2016. The SOTA planners expanded the focus from CIH to non-pharmacological approaches, including structured exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and narrowed the focus on chronic musculoskeletal pain, the most common target of opioid therapy. The conference included researchers, clinical experts, and other stakeholders from the VA, Department of Defense, National Institutes of Health, and the academic community. Three work groups were formed to focus on psychological/behavioral, exercise/movement, and manual approaches. A fourth work group examined evidence supporting different models of pain care delivered in general medical settings. Goals of the conference were to issue recommendations for VA clinical practice—where supported by existing evidence—and recommendations for research to address important gaps in the evidence.