Objective Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a validated surrogate marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and is predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Research on the association between IMT and diet, however, is lacking, especially in low-income countries or low-BMI populations. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intakes were measured using a validated, thirty-nine-item FFQ at baseline cohort recruitment. IMT measurements were obtained from 2010-2011. Setting Rural Bangladesh. Subjects Participants (n 1149) randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study, an ongoing, population-based, prospective cohort study established in 2000. Average age at IMT measurement was 45·5 years. Results Principal component analysis of reported food items yielded a 'balanced' diet, an 'animal protein' diet and a 'gourd and root vegetable' diet. We observed a positive association between the gourd/root vegetable diet and IMT, as each 1 sd increase in pattern adherence was related to a difference of 7·74 (95 % CI 2·86, 12·62) μm in IMT (P<0·01), controlling for age, sex, total energy intake, smoking status, BMI, systolic blood pressure and diabetes mellitus diagnoses. The balanced pattern was associated with lower IMT (-4·95 (95 % CI -9·78, -0·11) μm for each 1sd increase of adherence; P=0·045). Conclusions A gourd/root vegetable diet in this Bangladeshi population positively correlated with carotid IMT, while a balanced diet was associated with decreased IMT.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers R01 ES017541, P42 ES010349 and P30 ES000260) and in part by the National Center for the Advancement of Translational Science (NCATS), National Institutes of Health (grant number UL1 TR000038).
- Carotid intima-media thickness
- Dietary patterns