Maintenance of NAD+ Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle during Aging and Exercise

Li Li Ji, Dongwook Yeo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a versatile chemical compound serving as a coenzyme in metabolic pathways and as a substrate to support the enzymatic functions of sirtuins (SIRTs), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase (CD38). Under normal physiological conditions, NAD+ consumption is matched by its synthesis primarily via the salvage pathway catalyzed by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). However, aging and muscular contraction enhance NAD+ utilization, whereas NAD+ replenishment is limited by cellular sources of NAD+ precursors and/or enzyme expression. This paper will briefly review NAD+ metabolic functions, its roles in regulating cell signaling, mechanisms of its degradation and biosynthesis, and major challenges to maintaining its cellular level in skeletal muscle. The effects of aging, physical exercise, and dietary supplementation on NAD+ homeostasis will be highlighted based on recent literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number710
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research received no external funding. Funding: The research was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Twin Cities.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Aging
  • Exercise
  • Mitochondria
  • NAD+
  • Sirtuin
  • Skeletal muscle

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review


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