The Northeast region of Brazil (NRB) includes the states with the highest prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as well as those with significant increases in HIV cases. This study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of VL-HIV coinfection and its association with the social determinants of health (SDH) in the NRB. Time trend analysis and Bayesian spatial statistical inferences, Moran’s autocorrelation, and retrospective space–time scanning were performed. Spatial regression modelling was used to build an explanatory model for the occurrence of VL-HIV coinfection within NRB. A total of 1550 cases of VL-HIV coinfection were confirmed. We observed a higher prevalence among males (1232; 83%), individuals aged from 20 to 59 years (850; 54.8%), non-white skin color (1,422; 91.7%), and with low education (550; 35.48%). NRB showed an increasing and significant trend in the detection rate of coinfection (APC, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 9.4). The states of Maranhão and Piauí comprised the high-risk cluster. The SDH that most correlated with the occurrence of coinfection were poor housing, low income, and low education. VL-HIV is dispersed in the NRB but chiefly affects states with greater social vulnerability. Taken together, these findings reinforce the necessity to implement surveillance strategies that will contribute to the reduction of cases in these populations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Fundação de Apoio a Pesquisa e à Inovação Tecnológica do Estado de Sergipe (FAPITC/SE) (EDITAL FAPITEC/SE/FUNTEC/CAPES N° 07/2018). The funding helped in the conception of the study and collection and analysis of the data.
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Neglected diseases
- Spatial analysis
- Spatial regression
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article