Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Breast: Current Status

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59 Scopus citations


Invivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the breast can be used to measure the level of choline-containing compounds, which is a biomarker of malignancy. In the diagnostic setting, MRS can provide high specificity for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. MRS also can be used as an early response indicator in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This article describes the acquisition and analysis methods used for measuring total choline levels in the breast using MRS, reviews the findings from clinical studies of diagnosis and treatment response, and discusses problems, limitations, and future developments for this promising clinical technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-639
Number of pages15
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013


  • Breast cancer
  • Choline
  • Diagnosis
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Quantification
  • Treatment monitoring


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