PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may play a key role for the management of patients with glioma. We highlighted the utility of MRS in the noninvasive diagnosis of gliomas with mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes, by providing an overview of the neurochemical alterations observed in different glioma subtypes, as well as during treatment and progression, both in vivo and ex vivo. RECENT FINDINGS: D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) decrease during anticancer treatments was recently shown to be associated with altered levels of other metabolites, including lactate, glutamate and glutathione, suggesting that tumour treatment leads to a metabolic reprogramming beyond 2HG depletion. In combination with 2HG quantification, cystathionine and glycine seem to be the most promising candidates for higher specific identification of glioma subtypes and follow-up of disease progression and response to treatment. SUMMARY: The implementation of advanced MRS methods in the routine clinical practice will allow the quantification of metabolites that are not detectable with conventional methods and may enable immediate, accurate diagnosis of gliomas, which is crucial for planning optimal therapeutic strategies and follow-up examinations. The role of different metabolites as predictors of patient outcome still needs to be elucidated.