In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is rapidly becoming useful as a clinical tool for diagnosing and characterizing breast cancers. Alterations of the levels of choline-containing metabolites are associated with malignancy. High-field MR scanners at 1.5 T, 3 T, 4 T, and 7 T have been used to evaluate the role of 1H MRS measurements of total choline-containing compounds in patients with breast cancer. This article will review clinical use of MRI/MRS in vivo. Newer developments in high field MR scanning and quantitative MRS may help breast imagers improve sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing and treating breast cancer.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to acknowledge the following grants from NIH (Grants CA92004, CA120509, RR08079, and RR00400) and the DOD Breast Cancer Research program (DAMD 17-01-1-0331).
- magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- spectroscopic imaging
- total choline