Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Aided SmartFlow Convection Delivery of DNX-2401: A Pilot, Prospective Case Series

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Combination Adenovirus + Pembrolizumab to Trigger Immune Virus Effects (CAPTIVE) study is a phase II clinical trial testing the efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus DNX-2401 combined with the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab. Here, we report the first patients in this study who underwent viral delivery through real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stereotaxis–guided SmartFlow convection delivery of DNX-2401. Methods: Patients who underwent real-time MRI-guided DNX-2401 delivery through the SmartFlow convection catheter were prospectively followed. Results: Precise catheter placement was achieved in all patients treated, and no adverse events were noted. Average radial error from target was 0.9 mm. Average procedural time was 3 hours 16 minutes and was comparable to other convection-enhanced delivery techniques. In 2 patients, delivery of DNX-2401 was visualized as >1 cm maximal diameter of T1 hypointensity infusate on MRI obtained immediately after completion of viral infusion. These patients exhibited partial response based on Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology assessment. The remaining patient showed <1 cm maximal diameter of infusate on immediate postinfusion MRI and showed disease progression on subsequent MRI. Conclusions: Our pilot case series supports compatibility of the SmartFlow system with oncolytic adenovirus delivery and provides the basis for future validation studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e833-e840
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023


  • Convection-enhanced delivery
  • Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging
  • Real-time MRI guidance
  • Recurrent glioblastoma

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Journal Article


Dive into the research topics of 'Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Aided SmartFlow Convection Delivery of DNX-2401: A Pilot, Prospective Case Series'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this