Magnesium intake was inversely associated with hostility among American young adults

Chen Lyu, Cari L. Tsinovoi, Pengcheng Xun, Yiqing Song, Yongjia Pu, Andrea Rosanoff, Carlos Iribarren, Pamela J. Schreiner, James M. Shikany, David R. Jacobs, Ka Kahe

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2 Scopus citations


Hostility is a complex personality trait associated with many cardiovascular risk factor phenotypes. Although magnesium intake has been related to mood and cardio-metabolic disease, its relation with hostility remains unclear. We hypothesize that high total magnesium intake is associated with lower levels of hostility because of its putative antidepressant mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we prospectively analyzed data in 4,716 young adults aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) from four U.S. cities over five years of follow-up using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Magnesium intake was estimated from a dietary history questionnaire plus supplements at baseline. Levels of hostility were assessed using the Cook-Medley scale at baseline and year 5 (1990-1991). Generalized estimating equations were applied to estimate the association of magnesium intake with hostility as repeated measures at the two time-points (baseline and year 5). General linear model was used to determine the association between magnesium intake and change in hostility over 5 years. After adjustment for socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors, a significant inverse association was observed between magnesium intake and hostility level over 5 years of follow-up. Beta coefficients (95% CI) across higher quintiles of magnesium intake were 0 (reference), -1.28 (-1.92, -0.65), -1.45 (-2.09, -0.81), -1.41 (-2.08, -0.75) and -2.16 (-2.85, -1.47), respectively (Plinear-trend<.01). The inverse association was independent of socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors, supplement use, and depression status at year 5. This prospective study provides evidence that in young adults, high magnesium intake was inversely associated with hostility level independent of socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-44
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition Research
StatePublished - May 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the other investigators and the staff of the CARDIA Study for valuable contributions. This study was partially supported by grants from the NIH ( R01HL081572 , R01ES021735 , R01DK116603 , and RF1AG56111 ). The CARDIA Study is supported by contracts HHSN268201300025C, HHSN268201300026C, HHSN268201300027C, HSN268201300028C, HHSN268201300029C, and HHSN268200900041C from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and an intra-agency agreement between NIA and NHLBI (AG0005). The authors confirm that none of the authors had a conflict of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021


  • Generalized estimating equations
  • Hostility
  • Magnesium intake
  • Prospective study


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