We demonstrate that glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas (GDB) activates macrophage function. Analysis of the infiltration of macrophages into peritoneal cavity showed GDB treatment significantly increased the recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity. In order to further confirm and investigate the mechanism of GDB on macrophage activation, we analyzed the effects of GDB on the cytokine expression including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. GDB increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Cytokine induction by GDB was further confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with GDB produced strong induction of NF-κB DNA binding and MAPK phosphorylation, markers for macrophage activation and important factors for cytokine gene expression. Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that GDB stimulates macrophage activation.