Background: Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is diagnosed by an invasive in vitro caffeine-halothane contracture test (CHCT) carried out on biopsied skeletal muscle tissue. We are presenting a novel blood test approach for malignant hyperthermia testing in a swine model. Our main aim was to determine whether adenosine production from lymphocytes after 4-chloro-m-cresol (4CmC) stimulation distinguishes homozygous swine carrying the Arg615Cys mutation in the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) gene (MHS swine) from normal swine. Methods: Lymphocytes were isolated from arterial blood (40 ml) obtained from MHS (n = 7) and normal (n = 7) swine. Cells were suspended in Hank's balanced salt solution and treated with 4CmC (0 -10 mM) at 37°C in the presence of adenosine deaminase inhibitor. After termination and purification of samples, aliquots (50 μl) were assayed for adenosine content using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Baseline adenosine levels before stimulating lymphocytes with 4CmC were 0.025 ± 0.004 and 0.041 < 0.006 μM (mean ± SEM) in lymphocytes from normal and MHS swine, respectively (P = 0.125). Maximum responses were achieved at 1 mM 4CmC for both cell-line groups. Adenosine levels after stimulation with 4CmC (1 mM) were 0.185±0.009 and 0.397±0.038 μM in lymphocytes from normal and MHS swine, respectively (P = 0.0035). There was no overlap between adenosine levels in stimulated lymphocytes from MHS and normal swine. Conclusion: 4CmC stimulation of porcine lymphocytes induces increased adenosine formation in MHS cells relative to those from normal swine; evaluation of adenosine formation in response to RyR1 agonists in human lymphocytes is needed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received from the Department of Anesthesiology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. Submitted for publication January 21, 2010. Accepted for publication June 2, 2010. Supported by Grant nos. R080DN and R080DS from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.