Ludwig van Beethoven’s Sonata opus 109: Six Variations

Guerino Mazzola, Joomi Park, Florian Thalmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This case study illustrates the mathematical variant of our concept of creativity as discussed in section 19.2. The musical example we are looking at in this chapter is the third movement of Beethoven’s piano Sonata in E-major, op. 109, which is a sequence of six variations on the sonata’s main theme, and which is titled “Gesangvoll, mit innigster Empfindung” (“Lyrical, with deepest sentiment”). We mainly follow the brilliant analysis by Jürgen Uhde (1974, p. 465 ff.).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationComputational Music Science
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2011

Publication series

NameComputational Music Science
ISSN (Print)1868-0305
ISSN (Electronic)1868-0313

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2011, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • Basic Tonality
  • Mathematical Variant
  • Mathematical Version
  • Musical Creativity
  • Tonic Triad


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