Low Risk for Developing Diabetes Among the Offspring of Individuals With Exceptional Longevity and Their Spouses

the Long Life Family Study

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Abstract

Little is known about the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among the offspring of individuals with exceptional longevity. We determined the incidence of and potential risk and protective factors for T2D among the offspring of probands and offspring’s spouses (mean age=60 years, range 32-88 years) in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), a multicenter cohort study of 583 two-generation families with a clustering of healthy aging and exceptional longevity. Incident T2D was defined as fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dl, or HbA1c of ≥6.5%, or self-reported with doctor diagnosis of T2D, or the use of anti-diabetic medication during a mean follow-up 7.9 ± 1.1 years. Among offspring (n=1105) and spouses (n=328) aged 45-64 years without T2D at baseline visit, the annual incident rate of T2D was 3.6 and 3.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively, while among offspring (n=444) and spouses (n=153) aged 65+ years without T2D at baseline, the annual incident rate of T2D was 7.2 and 7.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively. By comparison, the annual incident rate of T2D per 1000 person-years in the U.S. general population was 9.9 among those aged 45-64, and 8.8 among those aged 65+ years (2018 National Health Interview Survey). Baseline BMI, waist circumference, and fasting serum triglycerides were positively associated with incident T2D, whereas fasting serum HDL-C, adiponectin, and sex hormone binding globulin were protective against incident T2D among the offspring (all P<0.05). Similar associations were observed among their spouses (all P<0.05, except sex hormone binding globulin). In addition, we observed that among spouses, but not offspring, fasting serum interleukin 6 and insulin-like growth factor 1 were positively associated with incident T2D (P<0.05 for both). Our study suggests that both offspring of long-living individuals and their spouses, especially middle-aged, share a similar low risk for developing T2D as compared with the general population. Our findings also raise the possibility that distinct biological risk and protective factors may contribute to T2D risk among offspring of long-lived individuals when compared with their spouses. Future studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying low T2D risk among the offspring of individuals with exceptional longevity, and also among their spouses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number753986
JournalFrontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare
Volume3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Miljkovic, Cvejkus, An, Thyagarajan, Christensen, Wojczynski, Schupf and Zmuda.

Keywords

  • Family Study
  • diabetes
  • long-living individuals
  • longevity
  • offspring

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