Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility

Jennifer Wessel, Audrey Y. Chu, Sara M. Willems, Shuai Wang, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Jennifer A. Brody, Marco Dauriz, Marie France Hivert, Sridharan Raghavan, Leonard Lipovich, Bertha Hidalgo, Keolu Fox, Jennifer E. Huffman, Ping An, Yingchang Lu, Laura J. Rasmussen-Torvik, Niels Grarup, Margaret G. Ehm, Li Li, Abigail S. BaldridgeAlena Stančáková, Ravinder Abrol, Céline Besse, Anne Boland, Jette Bork-Jensen, Myriam Fornage, Daniel F. Freitag, Melissa E. Garcia, Xiuqing Guo, Kazuo Hara, Aaron Isaacs, Johanna Jakobsdottir, Leslie A. Lange, Jill C. Layton, Man Li, Jing Hua Zhao, Karina Meidtner, Alanna C. Morrison, Mike A. Nalls, Marjolein J. Peters, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Claudia Schurmann, Angela Silveira, Albert V. Smith, Lorraine Southam, Marcus H. Stoiber, Rona J. Strawbridge, Kent D. Taylor, Tibor V. Varga, Kristine H. Allin, Najaf Amin, Jennifer L. Aponte, Tin Aung, Caterina Barbieri, Nathan A. Bihlmeyer, Michael Boehnke, Cristina Bombieri, Donald W. Bowden, Sean M. Burns, Yuning Chen, Yii Deri Chen, Ching Yu Cheng, Adolfo Correa, Jacek Czajkowski, Abbas Dehghan, Georg B. Ehret, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Stefan A. Escher, Aliki Eleni Farmaki, Mattias Frånberg, Giovanni Gambaro, Franco Giulianini, William A. Goddard, Anuj Goel, Omri Gottesman, Megan L. Grove, Stefan Gustafsson, Yang Hai, Göran Hallmans, Jiyoung Heo, Per Hoffmann, Mohammad K. Ikram, Richard A. Jensen, Marit E. Jørgensen, Torben Jørgensen, Maria Karaleftheri, Chiea C. Khor, Andrea Kirkpatrick, Aldi T. Kraja, Johanna Kuusisto, Ethan M. Lange, I. T. Lee, Wen Jane Lee, Aaron Leong, Jiemin Liao, Chunyu Liu, Yongmei Liu, Cecilia M. Lindgren, Allan Linneberg, Giovanni Malerba, Vasiliki Mamakou, Eirini Marouli, Nisa M. Maruthur, Angela Matchan, Roberta McKean-Cowdin, Olga McLeod, Ginger A. Metcalf, Karen L. Mohlke, Donna M. Muzny, Ioanna Ntalla, Nicholette D. Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Andreas Peter, Nigel W. Rayner, Frida Renström, Ken Rice, Cinzia F. Sala, Bengt Sennblad, Ioannis Serafetinidis, Jennifer A. Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Elizabeth K. Speliotes, Eli A. Stahl, Kathleen Stirrups, Nikos Tentolouris, Anastasia Thanopoulou, Mina Torres, Michela Traglia, Emmanouil Tsafantakis, Sundas Javad, Lisa R. Yanek, Eleni Zengini, Diane M. Becker, Joshua C. Bis, James B. Brown, L. Adrienne Cupples, Torben Hansen, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew J. Karter, Carlos Lorenzo, Rasika A. Mathias, Jill M. Norris, Gina M. Peloso, Wayne H H Sheu, Daniela Toniolo, Dhananjay Vaidya, Rohit Varma, Lynne E. Wagenknecht, Heiner Boeing, Erwin P. Bottinger, George Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Ele Ferrannini, Oscar H. Franco, Paul W. Franks, Richard A. Gibbs, Vilmundur Gudnason, Anders Hamsten, Tamara B. Harris, Andrew T. Hattersley, Caroline Hayward, Albert Hofman, Jan Håkan Jansson, Claudia Langenberg, Lenore J. Launer, Daniel Levy, Ben A. Oostra, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Stephen O'Rahilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, James S. Pankow, Ozren Polasek, Michael A. Province, Stephen S. Rich, Paul M. Ridker, Igor Rudan, Matthias B. Schulze, Blair H. Smith, André G. Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Hugh Watkins, Tien Y. Wong, Eleftheria Zeggini, Markku Laakso, Ingrid B. Borecki, Daniel I. Chasman, Oluf Pedersen, Bruce M. Psaty, E. Shyong Tai, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Nicholas J. Wareham, Dawn M. Waterworth, Eric Boerwinkle, W. H. Linda Kao, Jose C. Florez, Ruth J F Loos, James G. Wilson, Timothy M. Frayling, David S. Siscovick, Josée Dupuis, Jerome I. Rotter, James B. Meigs, Robert A. Scott, Mark O. Goodarzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fasting glucose and insulin are intermediate traits for type 2 diabetes. Here we explore the role of coding variation on these traits by analysis of variants on the HumanExome BeadChip in 60,564 non-diabetic individuals and in 16,491 T2D cases and 81,877 controls. We identify a novel association of a low-frequency nonsynonymous SNV in GLP1R (A316T; rs10305492; MAF=1.4%) with lower FG (β=-0.09±0.01mmoll-1, P=3.4 × 10-12), T2D risk (OR[95%CI]=0.86[0.76-0.96], P=0.010), early insulin secretion (β=-0.07±0.035pmolinsulin mmolglucose-1, P=0.048), but higher 2-h glucose (β=0.16±0.05mmoll-1, P=4.3 × 10-4). We identify a gene-based association with FG at G6PC2 (p SKAT =6.8 × 10-6) driven by four rare protein-coding SNVs (H177Y, Y207S, R283X and S324P). We identify rs651007 (MAF=20%) in the first intron of ABO at the putative promoter of an antisense lncRNA, associating with higher FG (β=0.02±0.004mmoll-1, P=1.3 × 10-8). Our approach identifies novel coding variant associations and extends the allelic spectrum of variation underlying diabetes-related quantitative traits and T2D susceptibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5897
JournalNature communications
Volume6
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
CHARGE: Funding support for ‘Building on GWAS for NHLBI-diseases: the U.S. CHARGE consortium’ was provided by the NIH through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (5RC2HL102419). Sequence data for ‘Building on GWAS for NHLBI-diseases: the U.S. CHARGE consortium’ was provided by Eric Boerwinkle on behalf of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, L. Adrienne Cupples, principal investigator for the Framingham Heart Study, and Bruce Psaty, principal investigator for the Cardiovascular Health Study. Sequencing was carried out at the Baylor Genome Center (U54 HG003273). Further support came from HL120393, ‘Rare variants and NHLBI traits in deeply phenotyped cohorts’ (Bruce Psaty, principal investigator). Supporting funding was also provided by NHLBI with the CHARGE infrastructure grant HL105756. In addition, M.J.P. was supported through the 2014 CHARGE Visiting Fellow grant—HL105756, Dr Bruce Psaty, PI.

Funding Information:
ENCODE: ENCODE collaborators Ben Brown and Marcus Stoiber were supported by the LDRD# 14-200 (B.B. and M.S.) and 4R00HG006698-03 (B.B.) grants.

Funding Information:
AGES: This study has been funded by NIA contract N01-AG-12100 with contributions from NEI, NIDCD and NHLBI, the NIA Intramural Research Program, Hjarta-vernd (the Icelandic Heart Association) and the Althingi (the Icelandic Parliament).

Funding Information:
ARIC: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) contracts (HHSN268201100005C, HHSN268201100006C, HHSN268201100007C, HHSN268201100008C, HHSN268201100009C, HHSN268201100010C, HHSN268201100011C and HHSN268201100012C), R01HL087641, R01HL59367 and R01HL086694; National Human Genome Research Institute contract U01HG004402; and National Institutes of Health contract HHSN268200625226C. We thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions. Infrastructure was partly supported by Grant Number UL1RR025005, a component of the National Institutes of Health and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. CARDIA: The CARDIA Study is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201300025C & HHSN268201300026C), Northwestern University (HHSN268201300027C), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201300028C), Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201300029C), and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (HHSN268200900041C). CARDIA is also partially supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging. Exome chip genotyping and data analyses were funded in part by grants U01-HG004729, R01-HL093029 and R01-HL084099 from the National Institutes of Health to Dr Myriam Fornage. This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content.

Funding Information:
CHES: This work was supported in part by The Chinese-American Eye Study (CHES) grant EY017337, an unrestricted departmental grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, and the Genetics of Latinos Diabetic Retinopathy (GOLDR) Study grant EY14684.

Funding Information:
CHS: This CHS research was supported by NHLBI contracts HHSN268201200036C, HHSN268200800007C, N01HC55222, N01HC85079, N01HC85080, N01HC85081, N01HC85082, N01HC85083, N01HC85086; and NHLBI grants HL080295, HL087652, HL103612, HL068986 with additional contribution from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Additional support was provided through AG023629 from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). A full list of CHS investigators and institutions can be found at http://www.chs-nhlbi.org/pi.htm. The provision of genotyping data was supported in part by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, CTSI grant UL1TR000124, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease Diabetes Research Center (DRC) grant DK063491 to the Southern California Diabetes Endocrinology Research Center. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The CoLaus Study: We thank the co-primary investigators of the CoLaus study, Gerard Waeber and Peter Vollenweider, and the PI of the PsyColaus Study Martin Preisig. We gratefully acknowledge Yolande Barreau, Anne-Lise Bastian, Binasa Ramic, Martine Moranville, Martine Baumer, Marcy Sagette, Jeanne Ecoffey and Sylvie Mermoud for their role in the CoLaus data collection. The CoLaus study was supported by research grants from GlaxoSmithKline and from the Faculty of Biology and Medicine of Lausanne, Switzerland. The PsyCoLaus study was supported by grants from the Swiss National Science Foundation (#3200B0–105993) and from GlaxoSmithKline (Drug Discovery—Verona, R&D).

Funding Information:
CROATIA-Korcula: The CROATIA-Korcula study would like to acknowledge the invaluable contributions of the recruitment team in Korcula, the administrative teams in Croatia and Edinburgh and the people of Korcula. Exome array genotyping was performed at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility Genetics Core at Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK. The CROATIA-Korcula study on the Croatian island of Korucla was supported through grants from the Medical Research Council UK and the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport in the Republic of Croatia (number 108-1080315-0302). EFSOCH: We are extremely grateful to the EFSOCH study participants and the EFSOCH study team. The opinions given in this paper do not necessarily represent those of NIHR, the NHS or the Department of Health. The EFSOCH study was supported by South West NHS Research and Development, Exeter NHS Research and Development, the Darlington Trust, and the Peninsula NIHR Clinical Research Facility at the University of Exeter. Timothy Frayling, PI, is supported by the European Research Council grant: SZ-245 50371-GLUCOSEGENES-FP7-IDEAS-ERC.

Funding Information:
EPIC-Potsdam: We thank all EPIC-Potsdam participants for their invaluable contribution to the study. The study was supported in part by a grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.). The recruitment phase of the EPIC-Potsdam study was supported by the Federal Ministry of Science, Germany (01 EA 9401) and the European Union (SOC 95201408 05 F02). The follow-up of the EPIC-Potsdam study was supported by German Cancer Aid (70-2488-Ha I) and the European Community (SOC 98200769 05 F02). Furthermore, we thank Ellen Kohlsdorf for data management as well as the follow-up team headed by Dr Manuala Bergmann for case ascertainment.

Funding Information:
ERF: The ERF study was supported by grants from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and a joint grant from NWO and the Russian Foundation for Basic research (Pionier, 047.016.009, 047.017.043), Erasmus MC, and the Centre for Medical Systems Biology (CMSB; National Genomics Initiative). Exome sequencing analysis in ERF was supported by the ZonMw grant (91111025).

Funding Information:
FamHS: The Family Heart Study (FamHS) was supported by NIH grants R01-HL-087700 and R01-HL-088215 (Michael A. Province, PI) from NHLBI; and R01-DK-8925601 and R01-DK-075681 (Ingrid B. Borecki, PI) from NIDDK. FENLAND: The Fenland Study is funded by the Medical Research Council (MC_U106179471) and Wellcome Trust. We are grateful to all the volunteers for their time and help, and to the General Practitioners and practice staff for assistance with recruitment. We thank the Fenland Study Investigators, Fenland Study Co-ordination team and the Epidemiology Field, Data and Laboratory teams. The Fenland Study is funded by the Medical Research Council (MC_U106179471) and Wellcome Trust.

Funding Information:
FHS: Genotyping, quality control and calling of the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip in the Framingham Heart Study was supported by funding from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Division of Intramural Research (Daniel Levy and Christopher J. O’Donnell, Principle Investigators). A portion of this research was conducted using the Linux Clusters for Genetic Analysis (LinGA) computing resources at Boston University Medical Campus. Also supported by National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) R01 DK078616, NIDDK K24 DK080140 and American Diabetes Association Mentor-Based Postdoctoral Fellowship Award #7-09-MN-32, all to Dr Meigs, a Canadian Diabetes Association Research Fellowship Award to Dr Leong, a research grant from the University of Verona, Italy to Dr Dauriz, and NIDDK Research Career Award K23 DK65978, a Massachusetts General Hospital Physician Scientist Development Award and a Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Clinical Scientist Development Award to Dr Florez.

Funding Information:
FIA3: We are indebted to the study participants who dedicated their time and samples to these studies. We thank Åsa Ågren (Umeå Medical Biobank) for data organization and Kerstin Enquist and Thore Johansson (Västerbottens County Council) for technical assistance with DNA extraction. This particular project was supported by project grants from the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Umeå Medical Research Foundation and Västerbotten County Council. The Genetics Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome (GEMS) Study: We thank Metabolic Syndrome GEMs investigators: Scott Grundy, Jonathan Cohen, Ruth McPherson, Antero Kesaniemi, Robert Mahley, Tom Bersot, Philip Barter and Gerard Waeber. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the study personnel at each of the collaborating sites: John Farrell, Nicholas Nikolopoulos and Maureen Sutton (Boston); Judy Walshe, Monica Prentice, Anne Whitehouse, Julie Butters and Tori Nicholls (Australia); Heather Doelle, Lynn Lewis and Anna Toma (Canada); Kari Kervinen, Seppo Poykko, Liisa Mannermaa and Sari Paavola (Finland); Claire Hurrel, Diane Morin, Alice Mermod, Myriam Genoud and Roger Darioli (Switzerland); Guy Pepin, Sibel Tanir, Erhan Palaoglu, Kerem Ozer, Linda Mahley and Aysen Agacdiken (Turkey); and Deborah A. Widmer, Rhonda Harris and Selena Dixon (United States). Funding for the GEMS study was provided by GlaxoSmithKline.

Funding Information:
GeneSTAR: The Johns Hopkins Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk (GeneSTAR) Study was supported by NIH grants through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL58625-01A1, HL59684, HL071025-01A1, U01HL72518, HL112064, and HL087698) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NR0224103) and by M01-RR000052 to the Johns Hopkins General Clinical Research Center. Genotyping services were provided through the RS&G Service by the Northwest Genomics Center at the University of Washington, Department of Genome Sciences, under U.S. Federal Government contract number HHSN268201100037C from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Funding Information:
GLACIER: We are indebted to the study participants who dedicated their time, data and samples to the GLACIER Study as part of the Västerbottens hälsoundersökningar (Västerbottens Health Survey). We thank John Hutiainen and Åsa Ågren (Northern Sweden Biobank) for data organization and Kerstin Enquist and Thore Johansson (Västerbottens County Council) for extracting DNA. We also thank M. Sterner, M. Juhas and P. Storm (Lund University Diabetes Center) for their expert technical assistance with genotyping and genotype data preparation. The GLACIER Study was supported by grants from Novo Nordisk, the Swedish Research Council, Påhlssons Foundation, The Heart Foundation of Northern Sweden, the Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, the Skåne Regional Health Authority, Umeå Medical Research Foundation and the Wellcome Trust. This particular project was supported by project grants from the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Diabetes Association, Påhlssons Foundation and Novo nordisk (all grants to P. W. Franks).

Funding Information:
was funded by the Wellcome Trust (098051). We thank all participants for their important contribution. We are grateful to Georgia Markou, Laiko General Hospital Diabetes Centre, Maria Emetsidou and Panagiota Fotinopoulou, Hippokratio General Hospital Diabetes Centre, Athina Karabela, Dafni Psychiatric Hospital, Eirini Glezou and Marios Matzioros, Dromokaiteio Psychiatric Hospital, Angela Rentari, Harokopio University of Athens, and Danielle Walker, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

Funding Information:
Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS): GS:SFHS is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates, grant number CZD/16/6 and the Scottish Funding Council. Exome array genotyping for GS:SFHS was funded by the Medical Research Council UK and performed at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility Genetics Core at Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK. We also acknowledge the invaluable contributions of the families who took part in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, the general practitioners and Scottish School of Primary Care for their help in recruiting them, and the whole Generation Scotland team, which includes academic researchers, IT staff, laboratory technicians, statisticians and research managers. The chief investigators of Generation Scotland are David J. Porteous (University of Edinburgh), Lynne Hocking (University of Aberdeen), Blair Smith (University of Dundee), and Sandosh Padmanabhan (University of Glasgow). GSK (CoLaus, GEMS, Lolipop): We thank the GEMS Study Investigators: Philip Barter, PhD; Y. Antero Kesäniemi, PhD; Robert W. Mahley, PhD; Ruth McPherson, FRCP; and Scott M. Grundy, PhD. Dr Waeber MD, the CoLaus PI’s Peter Vollenweider MD and Gerard Waeber MD, the LOLIPOP PI’s, Jaspal Kooner MD and John Chambers MD, as well as the participants in all the studies. The GEMS study was sponsored in part by GlaxoSmithKline. The CoLaus study was supported by grants from GlaxoSmithKline, the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant 33CSCO-122661) and the Faculty of Biology and Medicine of Lausanne.

Funding Information:
Health ABC: The Health, Aging and Body Composition (HABC) Study is supported by NIA contracts N01AG62101, N01AG62103 and N01AG62106. The exome-wide association study was funded by NIA grant 1R01AG032098-01A1 to Wake Forest University Health Sciences and was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging (Z01 AG000949-02 and Z01 AG007390-07, Human subjects protocol UCSF IRB is H5254-12688-11). Portions of this study utilized the high-performance computational capabilities of the Biowulf Linux cluster at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. (http:/biowulf.nih.gov). Health2008: The Health2008 cohort was supported by the Timber Merchant Vilhelm Bang’s Foundation, the Danish Heart Foundation (Grant number 07-10-R61-A1754-B838-22392F), and the Health Insurance Foundation (Helsefonden) (Grant number 2012B233). HELIC: This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust (098051) and the European Research Council (ERC-2011-StG 280559-SEPI). The MANOLIS cohort is named in honour of Manolis Giannakakis, 1978–2010. We thank the residents of Anogia and surrounding Mylopotamos villages, and of the Pomak villages, for taking part. The HELIC study has been supported by many individuals who have contributed to sample collection (including Antonis Athanasiadis, Olina Balafouti, Christina Batzaki, Georgios Daskalakis, Eleni Emmanouil, Chrisoula Giannakaki, Margarita Giannakopoulou, Anastasia Kaparou, Vasiliki Kariakli, Stella Koinaki, Dimitra Kokori, Maria Konidari, Hara Koundouraki, Dimitris Koutoukidis, Vasiliki Mamakou, Eirini Mamalaki, Eirini Mpamiaki, Maria Tsoukana, Dimitra Tzakou, Katerina Vosdogianni, Niovi Xenaki, Eleni Zengini), data entry (Thanos Antonos, Dimitra Papagrigoriou, Betty Spiliopoulou), sample logistics (Sarah Edkins, Emma Gray), genotyping (Robert Andrews, Hannah Blackburn, Doug Simpkin, Siobhan Whitehead), research administration (Anja Kolb-Kokocinski, Carol Smee, Danielle Walker) and informatics (Martin Pollard, Josh Randall).

Funding Information:
INCIPE: NIcole Soranzo’s research is supported by the Wellcome Trust (Grant Codes WT098051 and WT091310), the EU FP7 (EPIGENESYS Grant Code 257082 and BLUEPRINT Grant Code HEALTH-F5-2011-282510).

Funding Information:
Inter99: The Inter99 was initiated by Torben Jørgensen (PI), Knut Borch-Johnsen (co-PI), Hans Ibsen and Troels F. Thomsen. The steering committee comprises the former two and Charlotta Pisinger. The study was financially supported by research grants from the Danish Research Council, the Danish Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Novo Nordisk Inc., Research Foundation of Copenhagen County, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Health, the Danish Heart Foundation, the Danish Pharmaceutical Association, the Augustinus Foundation, the Ib Henriksen Foundation, the Becket Foundation and the Danish Diabetes Association. Genetic studies of both Inter99 and Health 2008 cohorts were funded by the Lundbeck Foundation and produced by The Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Applied Medical Genomics in Personalised Disease Prediction, Prevention and Care (LuCamp, www.lucamp.org). The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research is an independent Research Center at the University of Copenhagen partially funded by an unrestricted donation from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (www.metabol.ku.dk).

Funding Information:
InterAct Consortium: Funding for the InterAct project was provided by the EU FP6 programme (grant number LSHM_CT_2006_037197). We thank all EPIC participants and staff for their contribution to the study. We thank the lab team at the MRC Epidemiology Unit for sample management and Nicola Kerrison for data management.

Funding Information:
IPM BioMe Biobank: The Mount Sinai IPM BioMe Program is supported by The Andrea and Charles Bronfman Philanthropies. Analyses of BioMe data was supported in part through the computational resources and staff expertise provided by the Department of Scientific Computing at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Funding Information:
The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS): The IRASFS was conducted and supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (HL060944, HL061019, and HL060919). Exome chip genotyping and data analyses were funded in part by grants DK081350 and HG007112. A subset of the IRASFS exome chips were contributed with funds from the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan. Computing resources were provided, in part, by the Wake Forest School of Medicine Center for Public Health Genomics.

Funding Information:
The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS): The IRAS was conducted and supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (HL047887, HL047889, HL047890 and HL47902). Exome chip genotyping and data analyses were funded in part by grants DK081350 and HG007112). Computing resources were provided, in part, by the Wake Forest School of Medicine Center for Public Health Genomics. JHS: The JHS is supported by contracts HHSN268201300046C, HHSN268201300047C, HHSN268201300048C, HHSN268201300049C, HHSN268201300050C from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities. ExomeChip genotyping was supported by the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01HL107816 to S. Kathiresan. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Funding Information:
The London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) Study: We thank the co-primary investigators of the LOLIPOP study: Jaspal Kooner, John Chambers and Paul Elliott. The LOLIPOP study is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, the British Heart Foundation (SP/04/002), the Medical Research Council (G0700931), the Wellcome Trust (084723/Z/08/Z) and the National Institute for Health Research (RP-PG-0407-10371).

Funding Information:
MESA: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and MESA SHARe project are conducted and supported by contracts N01-HC-95159 through N01-HC-95169 and RR-024156 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Funding for MESA SHARe genotyping was provided by NHLBI Contract N02-HL-6-4278. MESA Family is conducted and supported in collaboration with MESA investigators; support is provided by grants and contracts R01HL071051, R01HL071205, R01HL071250, R01HL071251, R01HL071252, R01HL071258, R01HL071259. MESA Air is conducted and supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with MESA Air investigators; support is provided by grant RD83169701. We thank the participants of the MESA study, the Coordinating Center, MESA investigators, and study staff for their valuable contributions. A full list of participating MESA investigators and institutions can be found at http://www.mesa-nhlbi.org. Additional support was provided by the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) grants R01DK079888 and P30DK063491 and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grant UL1-TR000124. Further support came from the Cedars-Sinai Winnick Clinical Scholars Award (to M.O. Goodarzi).

Funding Information:
METSIM: The METSIM study was funded by the Academy of Finland (grants no. 77299 and 124243). M.L. acknowledges funding from the Academy of Finland. M.B. and K.M. acknowledge grant funding from NIH grants DK062370, DK093757, DK072193. MRC Ely: The Ely Study was funded by the Medical Research Council (MC_U106179471) and Diabetes UK. We are grateful to all the volunteers, and to the staff of St Mary’s Street Surgery, Ely and the study team.

Funding Information:
PROCARDIS: We thank all participants in this study. The European Community Sixth Framework Program (LSHM-CT-2007-037273), AstraZeneca, the British Heart Foundation, the Oxford British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, the Wellcome Trust (075491/Z/04), the Swedish Research Council, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Torsten and Ragnar Söderberg Foundation, the Strategic Cardiovascular and Diabetes Programs of Kar-olinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, the Foundation for Strategic Research and the Stockholm County Council (560283). Bengt Sennblad acknowledges funding from the Magnus Bergvall Foundation and the Foundation for Old Servants. Rona J. Strawbridge is supported by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Tore Nilsson foundation, the Fredrik and Ingrid Thuring foundation and the Foundation for Old Servants. Maria Sabater-Lleal acknowledges funding from Åke-wiberg, Tore Nilsson and Karolinska Institutet Foundations. Mattias Frånberg acknowledges funding from the Swedish e-science Research Center (SeRC).

Funding Information:
RISC: We are extremely grateful to the RISC study participants and the RISC study team. The RISC Study is partly supported by EU grant QLG1-CT-2001-01252. Additional support for the RISC Study has been provided by AstraZeneca (Sweden). The RISC Study was supported by European Union grant QLG1-CT-2001-01252 and AstraZeneca. Ele Ferrannini acknowledges grant funding from Boehringer-Ingelheim and Lilly&Co and works as a consultant for Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lilly&Co., MSD, Sanofi, GSK, Janssen, Menarini, Novo Nordisk, AstraZeneca. Rotterdam Study: The Rotterdam Study is funded by the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (014-93-015; RIDE2), the Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)/ Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) project nr. 050-060-810, CHANCES (nr 242244), Erasmus Medical Center and Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands Organization for the Health Research and Development (ZonMw), the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly (RIDE), the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sports, the European Commission (DG XII) and the Municipality of Rotterdam. Abbas Dehghan is supported by NWO grant veni (veni, 916.12.154) and the EUR Fellowship. We are grateful to the study participants, the staff from the Rotterdam Study and the participating general practitioners and pharmacists.

Funding Information:
SCARF: We thank all participants in this study. The study was funded by the Foundation for Strategic Research, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Swedish Research Council (8691, 12660, 20653), the European Commission (LSHM-CT-2007-037273), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Torsten and Ragnar Söderberg Foundation, the Strategic Cardiovascular and Diabetes Programmes of Karolinska Institutet and the Stockholm County Council, and the Stockholm County Council (560183). Bengt Sennblad acknowledges funding from the Magnus Bergvall Foundation and the Foundation for Old Servants. Mattias Frånberg acknowledges funding from the Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC). SCES: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES) was supported by the National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore (grants 0796/2003, IRG07nov013, IRG09nov014, NMRC 1176/2008, STaR/0003/2008, CG/SERI/2010) and Biomedical Research Council (BMRC), Singapore (08/1/35/19/550 and 09/1/35/19/616).

Funding Information:
TEENAGE (TEENs of Attica: Genes and Environment): This research has been cofinanced by the European Union (European Social Fund—ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’ of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)—Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund. This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust (098051).

Funding Information:
Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM): The exome chip genotyping and data analyses were supported by Uppsala University, Knut och Alice Wallenberg Foundation, European Research Council, Swedish Diabetes Foundation (grant no. 2013-024), Swedish Research Council (grant no. 2012-1397), and Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation (20120197). C.M.L. is supported by a Wellcome Trust Research Career Development Fellowship (086596/Z/08/Z). INGI-VB: The Val Borbera study (INGI-VB) thanks the inhabitants of the Val Borbera for participating in the study, the local administrations and the ASL-Novi Ligure for support and Fiammetta Viganò for technical help. We also thank Professor Clara Camaschella, Professor Federico Caligaris-Cappio and the MDs of the Medicine Dept. of the San Raffaele Hospital for help with clinical data collection. The study was supported by funds from Fondazione Compagnia di San Paolo-Torino, Fondazione Cariplo-Milano, Italian Ministry of Health Progetto Finalizzato 2007 and 2012, Italian Ministry of Health Progetto CCM 2010, and PRIN 2009.

Funding Information:
WGHS: The WGHS is supported by HL043851 and HL080467 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and CA047988 from the National Cancer Institute, the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation and the Fondation Leducq, with collaborative scientific support and funding for genotyping provided by Amgen.

Funding Information:
Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at http://www.nature.com/ naturecommunications Competing financial interests: J.C.F. has received consulting honoraria from PanGenX and Pfizer; T.F. consulted for Boeringer Ingelheim; J.B.M. serves as a consultant to LipoScience, and Quest Diagnostics; B.P. serves on the DSMB of a clinical trial for a device funded by the manufacturer (Zoll LifeCor) and on the Steering Committee for the Yale Open Data Access Project funded by Johnson & Johnson; D.M.W., M.G.E., L.L. and J.A. are all full time employees of GlaxoSmithKline. P.M.R. and D.I.C. have research grant support from Amgen, AstraZeneca and the NHLBI. The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests.

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this