Expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) on natural killer (NK) cells has been difficult to analyze on human NK cells. By testing commercial clones and novel anti-PD-1 reagents, we found expression of functional PD-1 on resting human NK cells in healthy individuals and reconstituting NK cells early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Peripheral blood samples from healthy individuals and transplant recipients were stained for PD-1 expression using the commercial anti-PD-1 clone PD220.127.116.11, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled pembrolizumab, or an FITC-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) reagent made from pembrolizumab. These reagents identified low yet consistent basal PD-1 expression on resting NK cells, a finding verified by finding lower PD-1 transcripts in sorted NK cells compared with those in resting or activated T cells. An increase in PD-1 expression was identified on paired resting NK cells after allo-HSCT. Blockade of PD-1 on resting NK cells from healthy donors with pembrolizumab did not enhance NK function against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-expressing tumor lines, but blocking with its scFv derivative resulted in a twofold increase in NK cell degranulation and up to a fourfold increase in cytokine production. In support of this mechanism, PD-L1 overexpression of K562 targets suppressed NK cell function. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) activity was potent and could not be further enhanced by PD-1 blockade. A similar increase in function was observed with scFv PD-1 blockade on resting blood NK cells after allo-HSCT. We identify the functional importance of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis on human NK cells in which blockade or activation to overcome inhibition will enhance NK cell-mediated antitumor control.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (CA111412 [J.S.M.], CA65493 [B.R.B. and J.S.M.], and CA197292 [J.S.M.], and in part by 5P30CA077598-18 [funding for the University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center]), and by grants from the National Institute
© 2021 by The American Society of Hematology.