Low-Complexity Seizure Prediction From iEEG/sEEG Using Spectral Power and Ratios of Spectral Power

Zisheng Zhang, Keshab K Parhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

158 Scopus citations


Prediction of seizures is a difficult problem as the EEG patterns are not wide-sense stationary and change from seizure to seizure, electrode to electrode, and from patient to patient. This paper presents a novel patient-specific algorithm for prediction of seizures in epileptic patients from either one or two single-channel or bipolar channel intra-cranial or scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with low hardware complexity. Spectral power features are extracted and their ratios are computed. For each channel, a total of 44 features including 8 absolute spectral powers, 8 relative spectral powers and 28 spectral power ratios are extracted every two seconds using a 4-second window with a 50% overlap. These features are then ranked and selected in a patient-specific manner using a two-step feature selection. Selected features are further processed by a second-order Kalman filter and then input to a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The algorithm is tested on the intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) from the Freiburg database and scalp EEG (sEEG) from the MIT Physionet database. The Freiburg database contains 80 seizures among 18 patients in 427 hours of recordings. The MIT EEG database contains 78 seizures from 17 children in 647 hours of recordings. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can achieve a sensitivity of 100% and an average false positive rate (FPR) of 0.0324 per hour for the iEEG (Freiburg) database and a sensitivity of 98.68% and an average FPR of 0.0465 per hour for the sEEG (MIT) database. These results are obtained with leave-one-out cross-validation where the seizure being tested is always left out from the training set. The proposed algorithm also has a low complexity as the spectral powers can be computed using FFT. The area and power consumption of the proposed linear SVM are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than a radial basis function kernel SVM (RBF-SVM) classifier. Furthermore, the total energy consumption of a system using linear SVM is reduced by 8% to 23% compared to system using RBF-SVM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7307237
Pages (from-to)693-706
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 IEEE.


  • Branch and bound
  • Linear separability
  • Low-complexity architecture
  • Power spectral density
  • Ratio of spectral power
  • Seizure prediction


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