Background/objectives: Vitamin D status has been associated with fetal growth and offspring’s bone mass in some observational studies. We characterize the trajectory of total maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration by race and examine whether vitamin D status is associated with neonatal anthropometry and body composition as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects/methods: Three longitudinal pregnancy samples from the Memphis site of the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial (1992–1995) were used. Racial differences in total 25(OH)D trajectories (n = 343 women) were tested using an interaction term between blood draw gestational week and race in linear mixed-effects models. Linear regression and linear mixed-effects models estimated the adjusted associations between total 25(OH)D concentration with neonatal anthropometry and body composition (n = 252 with DXA) including interactions with infant sex and serum calcium. Results: Total 25(OH)D concentration increased with gestational age, but its trajectory over pregnancy did not differ between African–American and Caucasian women. Deficient maternal vitamin D (25(OH)D concentration <20 ng/ml) was associated with lower neonatal total bone mineral density (β −0.009 g/cm 2 ; 95% CI −0.016, −0.002). Among male newborns, deficiency was also associated with lower lean mass (−217 g; −391, −43) and birthweight (−308 g; −540, −76). Deficient maternal vitamin D was also associated with lower ponderal index (β –2.3 kg/m 3 ; 95% CI −4.0, −0.5) among those in the lowest calcium tertile. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with lower bone density and smaller size at birth in certain subgroups suggesting its importance in fetal development.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding Supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The CPEP trial was originally supported by contracts (N01-HD-1-3121, -3122, -3123, -3124, -3125, and -3126; N01-HD-3154; and N01-HD-5-3246) with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with co-funding from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Additional biomarker assays including for vitamin D was supported by contract (HHSN275201300023I-HHSN2750002) with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.