Longitudinal Effects of a Motivationally Focused Strategy to Increase the Yield of Training and Consultation on Teachers’ Adoption and Fidelity of a Universal Program

James L Merle, Clayton R Cook, Michael D. Pullmann, Madeline F. Larson, Corinne M Hamlin, Maria L. Hugh, Stephanie K. Brewer, Mylien T. Duong, Mahasweta Bose, Aaron R. Lyon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


UNLABELLED: Group-based didactic training is a cornerstone implementation strategy used to support the adoption and delivery of evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) by teachers in schools, but it is often insufficient to drive successful implementation. Beliefs and Attitudes for Successful Implementation in Schools for Teachers (BASIS-T) is a theory-based, motivational implementation strategy designed to increase the yield of EBPP training and consultation. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of BASIS-T on hypothesized mechanisms of behavior change (e.g., attitudes toward EBPP, self-efficacy, intentions to implement) and implementation and student outcomes associated with a well-established universal prevention program-the good behavior game (GBG). This pilot trial included 82 elementary school teachers from nine public elementary schools who were randomly assigned at the school-level to the BASIS-T ( n  = 43) or active comparison ( n  = 39) condition, with both conditions receiving training and consultation of the good behavior game by a third-party purveyor. Analyses included mixed-effects and multilevel growth modeling of adoption, mechanisms of behavior change, and student behavior outcomes. Meaningful effects were found favoring BASIS-T on immediate adoption of the GBG within the first month of school (74% vs. 40%) and self-efficacy ( p  < 0.05). These findings advance our understanding of the type of implementation strategies that complement pre-implementation training and post-training consultation in schools by identifying the importance of task self-efficacy as a mechanism of behavior change related to adoption for prevention programming.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12310-022-09536-z.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-122
Number of pages18
JournalSchool Mental Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This manuscript was supported by Grants from the Institute of Education Sciences (R324A180032 and R305A170292), the National Institute of Mental Health (F31MH117947), and the National Institute of Health training post-doctoral slot to JLM (NLM; T15LM007124)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Behavior change
  • Implementation
  • Implementation strategy
  • Mechanism
  • Motivational interviewing
  • School
  • Training


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