Objective: This study assessed the longitudinal changes in renal volume after renal artery stenting (RAS) to determine if renal mass is preserved by stenting. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 38 patients with longitudinal imaging available for renal volume quantification before and after RAS. Renal volume was estimated as (kidney length) × (width) × (depth/2) based on preoperative renal imaging. For each patient, the clinical response of blood pressure (BP) and renal function to RAS was categorized according to modified American Heart Association guidelines. Changes in renal volume were assessed using paired nonparametric analyses. Results: The cohort was a median age of 69 years (interquartile range [IQR], 60-74 years). A favorable BP response was observed in 11 of 38 patients (28.9%). At a median interval between imaging studies of 21 months (IQR, 13-32 months), ipsilateral renal volume was significantly increased from baseline (146.8 vs 133.8 cm3;P =.02). This represents a 6.9% relative increase in ipsilateral kidney volume from baseline. A significant negative correlation between preoperative renal volume and the relative change in renal volume postoperatively (r = -0.42; P =.0055) suggests that smaller kidneys experienced the greatest gains in renal volume after stenting. It is noteworthy that the 25 patients with no change in BP or renal functionclinical failures using traditional definitionsexperienced a 12% relative increase in ipsilateral renal volume after RAS. Multivariate analysis determined that stable or improved renal volume after stenting was an independent predictor of stable or improved long-term renal function (odds ratio, 0.008; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.206; P =.004). Conclusions: These data lend credence to the belief that RAS preserves renal mass in some patients. This benefit of RAS even extends to those patients who would be considered treatment failures by traditional definitions. Patients with stable or increased renal volume after RAS had more stable renal function during long-term follow-up, whereas patients with renal volume loss after stenting were prone to deterioration of renal function.