Despite increasing interest in the health effects of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), their roles in fetal and neonatal growth remain understudied. Within the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies— Singleton Cohort, we prospectively investigated the associations of individual and subclasses of plasma phospholipid PUFAs at gestational weeks (GW) 10–14, 15–26, 23–31, and 33–39 with neonatal anthropometric measures as surrogates for fetal growth among 107 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 214 non-GDM controls. Multivariable weighted linear regression models estimated the associations between plasma phospholipid PUFAs and neonatal anthropometric measures. Adjusted beta coefficients for phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per standard deviation (SD) increase at GW 23–31 in association with birthweight z-score, neonatal length, and neonatal fat mass were 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08–0.41), 0.57 (0.11–1.03) cm, and 54.99 (23.57–86.42) g, respectively; all false discovery rates (FDRs) < 0.05. Estimated ∆5-desaturase activity per SD increase at GW 33–39 but not at other time points was positively associated with birthweight z-score: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.08–0.33); neonatal length: 0.61 (0.29–0.94) cm; and neonatal fat mass: 32.59 (8.21–56.96) g; all FDRs < 0.05. Longitudinal analysis showed consistent results. Our findings suggest that mid-to-late pregnancy presented as critical windows for primarily diet-derived DHA and ∆5-desaturase activity in relation to neonatal anthropometric measures.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development intramural funding and included American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding (contract numbers HHSN275200800013C, HHSN275200800002I, HHSN27500006, HHSN275200800003IC, HHSN275200800014C, HHSN275200800012C, HHSN275200800028C, HHSN275201000009C, and HHSN275201000001Z). Y.Z. was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K01DK120807) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL157666).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
- N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
- Neonatal anthropometric measures
- Objective assessment
- Fatty Acids
- United States
- Fetal Development
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.)
- Case-Control Studies
- Infant, Newborn
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article