We sought to determine whether different social, psychological, emotional, and physiological experiences associated with quitting smoking related to people's satisfaction with cessation systematically, and whether the strength of the relations changes at different points during the cessation process and for different people (e.g., optimists). Using data from smokers enrolled in a cessation program, we used mixed models to assess the average longitudinal relation between people's experiences and satisfaction measured at seven time points and whether the relations were moderated by key variables. Eight of nine experiences were related to people's satisfaction (ps 0.05) and the models accounted for 39-44% of the within-person variance in satisfaction. Current smoking behavior was more strongly related to people's satisfaction during their early efforts to quit, whereas some experiences (e.g., feedback from others) had a stronger relation with satisfaction during people's later efforts to quit or maintain abstinence (ps 0.05). Individual differences in optimism and prior cessation experience moderated some of the relations (ps 0.05). The findings mark the first evidence of factors that might influence how people determine their satisfaction with smoking cessation. The implications for tailoring interventions and potentially increasing the likelihood that people maintain abstinence are discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was suppported by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Grant 1R01-NS38441-01. Portions of this research were presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, March 2007, Washington, D.C. We would like to thank Mark Vander Weg for providing feedback on a previous version of this paper and Stephen Hillis for his advice regarding the analyses. Dr. Austin S. Baldwin is a VA HSR&D Post-doctoral Fellow at the Center for Research in the Implementation of Innovative Strategies in Practice (CRIISP) at the VA Iowa City Health Care System, which is funded through the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Health Services Research and Development Service. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
- Behavior change maintenance
- Cessation experiences
- Smoking cessation