Longitudinal Associations between Concurrent Changes in Phenotypic Frailty and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Older Men

Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Research Group

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1 Scopus citations


Background: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with prevalent frailty and functional impairment, but longitudinal associations remain unexplored. Objectives: To assess the association of change in phenotypic frailty with concurrent worsening LUTS severity among older men without clinically significant LUTS at baseline. Design: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. Setting: Population-based. Participants: Participants included community-dwelling men age ≥65 years at enrollment in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study. Measurements: Data were collected at 4 visits over 7 years. Phenotypic frailty score (range: 0–5) was defined at each visit using adapted Fried criterion and men were categorized at baseline as robust (0), pre-frail (1–2), or frail (3–5). Within-person change in frailty was calculated at each visit as the absolute difference in number of criteria met compared to baseline. LUTS severity was defined using the American Urologic Association Symptom Index (AUASI; range: 0–35) and men with AUASI ≥8 at baseline were excluded. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for demographics, health-behaviors, and comorbidities to quantify the association between within-person change in frailty and AUASI. Results: Among 3235 men included in analysis, 48% were robust, 45% were pre-frail, and 7% were frail. Whereas baseline frailty status was not associated with change in LUTS severity, within-person increases in frailty were associated with greater LUTS severity (quadratic P<0.001). Among robust men at baseline, mean predicted AUASI during follow-up was 4.2 (95% CI 3.9, 4.5) among those meeting 0 frailty criteria, 4.6 (95% CI 4.3, 4.9) among those meeting 1 criterion increasing nonlinearly to 11.2 (95% CI 9.8, 12.6) among those meeting 5 criteria. Conclusions: Greater phenotypic frailty was associated with nonlinear increases in LUTS severity in older men over time, independent of age and comorbidities. Results suggest LUTS and frailty share an underlying mechanism that is not targeted by existing LUTS interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-125
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of frailty & aging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by grants to SRB from the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Disorders (grant numbers 1K12DK111028 and U54DK104310) and the National Institute on Aging (grant numbers 1R03AG067937 and 1K76AG074903) and the UCSF Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center funded by National Institute on Aging (grant number P30 AG044281 to KC). This publication was also supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through UCSF-CTSI Grant Number UL1 TR001872. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health funding from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research (grant numbers U01 AR45580, U01 AR45614, U01 AR45632, U01 AR45647, U01 AR45654, U01 AR45583, U01 AG18197, U01 AG027810, and UL1 TR000128).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


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