Long-term survival after mitral valve replacement in children aged <5 years: A multi-institutional study

C. A. Caldarone, G. Raghuveer, C. B. Hills, D. L. Atkins, T. L. Burns, D. M. Behrendt, J. H. Moller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

163 Scopus citations


Background - Short- and long-term outcomes after prosthetic mitral valve replacement (MVR) in children aged <5 years are ill-defined and generally perceived as poor. The experience of the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (45 centers, 1982 to 1999) was reviewed. Methods and Results - MVR was performed 176 times on 139 patients. Median follow-up was 6.2 years (range 0 to 20 years, 96% complete). Age at initial MVR was 1.9±1.4 years. Complications after initial MVR included heart block requiring pacemaker (16%), endocarditis (6%), thrombosis (3%), and stroke (2%). Patient survival was as follows: 1 year, 79%; 5 years, 75%; and 10 years, 74%. The majority of deaths occurred early after initial MVR, with little late attrition despite repeat MVR and chronic anticoagulation. Among survivors, the 5-year freedom from reoperation was 81%. Age-adjusted multivariable predictors of death include the presence of complete atrioventricular canal (hazard ratio 4.76, 95% CI 1.59 to 14.30), Shone's syndrome (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI 1.14 to 11.89), and increased ratio of prosthetic valve size to patient weight (relative risk 1.77 per mm/kg increment, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.97). Age- and diagnosis-adjusted prosthetic size/weight ratios predicted a 1-year survival of 91% for size/weight ratio 2, 79% for size/weight ratio 3, 61% for size/weight ratio 4, and 37% for size/weight ratio 5. Conclusions - Early mortality after MVR can be predicted on the basis of diagnosis and the size/weight ratio. Late mortality is low. These data can assist in choosing between MVR and alternative palliative strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)i143-i147
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Sep 18 2001


  • Mitral valve
  • Pediatrics
  • Prosthesis
  • Survival


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