Long-Term Morbidity and Mortality among Survivors of Neuroblastoma Diagnosed during Infancy: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

Danielle Novetsky Friedman, Pamela J. Goodman, Wendy M. Leisenring, Lisa R. Diller, Susan L. Cohn, Rebecca M. Howell, Susan A. Smith, Emily S. Tonorezos, Suzanne L. Wolden, Joseph P. Neglia, Kirsten K. Ness, Todd M. Gibson, Paul C. Nathan, Brent R. Weil, Leslie L. Robison, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Gregory T. Armstrong, Charles A. Sklar, Tara O. Henderson

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4 Scopus citations


PURPOSETo describe the risk of late mortality, subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), and chronic health conditions (CHCs) in survivors of neuroblastoma diagnosed in infancy by treatment era and exposures.METHODSAmong 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study diagnosed age < 1 year between 1970 and 1999, we examined the cumulative incidence of late (> 5 years from diagnosis) mortality, SMN, and CHCs (grades 2-5 and 3-5). Multivariable Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs by decade and treatment (surgery-alone v chemotherapy with or without surgery [C ± S] v radiation with or without chemotherapy ± surgery [R ± C ± S]) among survivors and between survivors and 5,051 siblings.RESULTSAmong 1,397 eligible survivors, the 25-year cumulative incidence of late mortality was 2.1% (95% CI, 1.3 to 3.9) with no difference by treatment era. Among 990 participants who completed a baseline survey, fewer survivors received radiation in more recent eras (51.2% 1970s, 20.4% 1980s, and 10.1% 1990s; P <.001). Risk of SMN was elevated only among individuals treated with radiation-containing regimens compared with surgery alone (HR[C ± S], 3.2 [95% CI, 0.9 to 11.6]; HR[R ± C ± S], 5.7 [95% CI, 1.2 to 28.1]). In adjusted models, there was a 50% reduction in risk of grade 3-5 CHCs in the 1990s versus 1970s (HR, 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9]; P =.01); individuals treated with radiation had a 3.6-fold risk for grade 3-5 CHCs (95% CI, 2.1 to 6.2) versus those treated with surgery alone. When compared with siblings, risk of grade 3-5 CHCs for survivors was lowest in the most recent era (HR[1970s], 4.7 [95% CI, 3.4 to 6.5]; HR[1980s], 4.6 [95% CI, 3.3 to 6.4]; HR[1990s], 2.5 [95% CI, 1.7 to 3.9]).CONCLUSIONNeuroblastoma survivors treated during infancy have a relatively low absolute burden of late mortality and SMN. Encouragingly, risk of CHCs has declined in more recent eras with reduced exposure to radiation therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1565-1576
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 10 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© American Society of Clinical Oncology.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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