Long-term functional outcomes after an external femoral derotation osteotomy in individuals with cerebral palsy

Elizabeth R. Boyer, Elizabeth A. Duffy, Kathryn Walt, Antonio Muñoz Hamen, Michael T. Healy, Michael H. Schwartz, Tom F. Novacheck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: It is unknown how a femoral derotation osteotomy (FDO) during childhood affects functional outcomes in adulthood among individuals with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Research questions: How do long-term functional outcomes after an FDO compare to matched individuals who did not have an FDO? How do outcomes change over time? Methods: We queried the gait laboratory database for individuals who underwent an external FDO in childhood and were currently ≥25 years old. Participants returned for a long-term analysis (gait, physical examination, functional tests, imaging, questionnaires). The matched non-FDO group included only individuals in Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II, yielding three groups (non-FDO I-II, FDO I-II, FDO III-IV). Results: Sixty-one adults (11 non-FDO, 34 FDO I-II, 16 FDO III-IV) returned 13–25 years after baseline (non-FDO) or surgery (FDO). The non-FDO and FDO I-II groups were matched at baseline on most variables, except the FDO group had weaker hip abductors. At long-term, groups were similar on gait variables (median long-term hip rotation [primary outcome], non-FDO: −4°, FDO I-II: −4°, FDO III-IV: −5°), hip abduction test, fear of falling, and most pain measures despite anteversion being 29° greater in the non-FDO group. The FDO I-II group reported more falls than the non-FDO group. All groups improved on hip rotation, foot progression, and hip abductor strength. Speed and step length decreased/tended to decrease for all three groups. Hip abduction moment and gait deviation index did not change. Improvements in the FDO groups were maintained from short- to long-term. Significance: These results challenge the notion that an FDO is necessary to correct mean stance hip rotation for higher functioning individuals since nearly identical results were achieved by adulthood in the non-FDO I-II group. However, an FDO provides improvement earlier and maintenance from short- to long-term. This should factor into the shared decision-making process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-191
Number of pages8
JournalGait and Posture
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Cerebral palsy
  • Femoral derotation osteotomy
  • Function
  • Gait
  • Long-term
  • Recurrence

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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