Long-Term Evidence Shows that Crop-Rotation Diversification Increases Agricultural Resilience to Adverse Growing Conditions in North America

Timothy M. Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Francisco Calderón, Michel A. Cavigelli, Steve W. Culman, William Deen, Craig F. Drury, Axel Garcia y Garcia, Amélie C.M. Gaudin, W. Scott Harkcom, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, G. Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty R. Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A. Stuart Grandy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

237 Scopus citations


A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Although empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, such as increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize yields in intensively managed grain systems. More diverse rotations increased maize yields over time and across all growing conditions (28.1% on average), including in favorable conditions (22.6%). Notably, more diverse rotations also showed positive effects on yield under unfavorable conditions, whereby yield losses were reduced by 14.0%–89.9% in drought years. Systems approaches to environmental sustainability and yield resilience, such as crop-rotation diversification, are a central component of risk-reduction strategies and should inform the enablement of policies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)284-293
Number of pages10
JournalOne Earth
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 20 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the numerous field technicians and others who have managed the 11 long-term experiments for many years. We also acknowledge the many sources of funding for the 11 long-term experiments, which can be found in site references. T.M.B. and A.S.G. acknowledge USDA AFRI grant 2017-67013-26254 for supporting this synthesis work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors


  • climate variability
  • crop diversity
  • crop rotation
  • diversified farming systems
  • drought
  • long-term experiment
  • maize
  • resilience


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-Term Evidence Shows that Crop-Rotation Diversification Increases Agricultural Resilience to Adverse Growing Conditions in North America'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this