LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS of the TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER

R. J. Van Weeren, G. Brunetti, M. Brüggen, F. Andrade-Santos, G. A. Ogrean, W. L. Williams, H. J A Röttgering, W. A. Dawson, W. R. Forman, F. De Gasperin, M. J. Hardcastle, C. Jones, G. K. Miley, D. A. Rafferty, L. Rudnick, J. Sabater, C. L. Sarazin, T. W. Shimwell, A. Bonafede, P. N. Best & 22 others L. Birzan, R. Cassano, K. T. Chyzy, J. H. Croston, T. J. Dijkema, T. Enßlin, C. Ferrari, G. Heald, M. Hoeft, C. Horellou, M. J. Jarvis, R. P. Kraft, M. Mevius, H. T. Intema, S. S. Murray, E. Orrú, R. Pizzo, S. S. Sridhar, A. Simionescu, A. Stroe, S. Van Der Tol, G. J. White

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    71 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We present deep LOFAR observations between 120 and 181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening toward the south to . The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform (, with an intrinsic scatter of ). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of , assuming diffusive shock acceleration. However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio relic implies a much weaker shock (, with an upper limit of ). The discrepancy between the Mach numbers calculated from the radio and X-rays can be explained if either (i) the relic traces a complex shock surface along the line of sight, or (ii) if the radio relic emission is produced by a re-accelerated population of fossil particles from a radio galaxy. Our results highlight the need for additional theoretical work and numerical simulations of particle acceleration and re-acceleration at cluster merger shocks.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number204
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume818
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Feb 20 2016

    Fingerprint

    LOFAR
    shock
    radio
    Mach number
    merger
    relativistic particles
    particle acceleration
    radio galaxies
    fossils
    gas density
    line of sight
    halos
    x rays
    probes
    probe
    fossil
    calibration
    simulation

    Keywords

    • X-rays: galaxies: clusters
    • galaxies: clusters: individual (RX J0603.3+4214)
    • galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
    • largescale structure of universe
    • radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

    Cite this

    Van Weeren, R. J., Brunetti, G., Brüggen, M., Andrade-Santos, F., Ogrean, G. A., Williams, W. L., ... White, G. J. (2016). LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS of the TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER. Astrophysical Journal, 818(2), [204]. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/204

    LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS of the TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER. / Van Weeren, R. J.; Brunetti, G.; Brüggen, M.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; Williams, W. L.; Röttgering, H. J A; Dawson, W. A.; Forman, W. R.; Gasperin, F. De; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jones, C.; Miley, G. K.; Rafferty, D. A.; Rudnick, L.; Sabater, J.; Sarazin, C. L.; Shimwell, T. W.; Bonafede, A.; Best, P. N.; Birzan, L.; Cassano, R.; Chyzy, K. T.; Croston, J. H.; Dijkema, T. J.; Enßlin, T.; Ferrari, C.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horellou, C.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kraft, R. P.; Mevius, M.; Intema, H. T.; Murray, S. S.; Orrú, E.; Pizzo, R.; Sridhar, S. S.; Simionescu, A.; Stroe, A.; Tol, S. Van Der; White, G. J.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 818, No. 2, 204, 20.02.2016.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Van Weeren, RJ, Brunetti, G, Brüggen, M, Andrade-Santos, F, Ogrean, GA, Williams, WL, Röttgering, HJA, Dawson, WA, Forman, WR, Gasperin, FD, Hardcastle, MJ, Jones, C, Miley, GK, Rafferty, DA, Rudnick, L, Sabater, J, Sarazin, CL, Shimwell, TW, Bonafede, A, Best, PN, Birzan, L, Cassano, R, Chyzy, KT, Croston, JH, Dijkema, TJ, Enßlin, T, Ferrari, C, Heald, G, Hoeft, M, Horellou, C, Jarvis, MJ, Kraft, RP, Mevius, M, Intema, HT, Murray, SS, Orrú, E, Pizzo, R, Sridhar, SS, Simionescu, A, Stroe, A, Tol, SVD & White, GJ 2016, 'LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS of the TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 818, no. 2, 204. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/204
    Van Weeren RJ, Brunetti G, Brüggen M, Andrade-Santos F, Ogrean GA, Williams WL et al. LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS of the TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER. Astrophysical Journal. 2016 Feb 20;818(2). 204. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/204
    Van Weeren, R. J. ; Brunetti, G. ; Brüggen, M. ; Andrade-Santos, F. ; Ogrean, G. A. ; Williams, W. L. ; Röttgering, H. J A ; Dawson, W. A. ; Forman, W. R. ; Gasperin, F. De ; Hardcastle, M. J. ; Jones, C. ; Miley, G. K. ; Rafferty, D. A. ; Rudnick, L. ; Sabater, J. ; Sarazin, C. L. ; Shimwell, T. W. ; Bonafede, A. ; Best, P. N. ; Birzan, L. ; Cassano, R. ; Chyzy, K. T. ; Croston, J. H. ; Dijkema, T. J. ; Enßlin, T. ; Ferrari, C. ; Heald, G. ; Hoeft, M. ; Horellou, C. ; Jarvis, M. J. ; Kraft, R. P. ; Mevius, M. ; Intema, H. T. ; Murray, S. S. ; Orrú, E. ; Pizzo, R. ; Sridhar, S. S. ; Simionescu, A. ; Stroe, A. ; Tol, S. Van Der ; White, G. J. / LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS of the TOOTHBRUSH GALAXY CLUSTER. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 818, No. 2.
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    AU - Van Weeren, R. J.

    AU - Brunetti, G.

    AU - Brüggen, M.

    AU - Andrade-Santos, F.

    AU - Ogrean, G. A.

    AU - Williams, W. L.

    AU - Röttgering, H. J A

    AU - Dawson, W. A.

    AU - Forman, W. R.

    AU - Gasperin, F. De

    AU - Hardcastle, M. J.

    AU - Jones, C.

    AU - Miley, G. K.

    AU - Rafferty, D. A.

    AU - Rudnick, L.

    AU - Sabater, J.

    AU - Sarazin, C. L.

    AU - Shimwell, T. W.

    AU - Bonafede, A.

    AU - Best, P. N.

    AU - Birzan, L.

    AU - Cassano, R.

    AU - Chyzy, K. T.

    AU - Croston, J. H.

    AU - Dijkema, T. J.

    AU - Enßlin, T.

    AU - Ferrari, C.

    AU - Heald, G.

    AU - Hoeft, M.

    AU - Horellou, C.

    AU - Jarvis, M. J.

    AU - Kraft, R. P.

    AU - Mevius, M.

    AU - Intema, H. T.

    AU - Murray, S. S.

    AU - Orrú, E.

    AU - Pizzo, R.

    AU - Sridhar, S. S.

    AU - Simionescu, A.

    AU - Stroe, A.

    AU - Tol, S. Van Der

    AU - White, G. J.

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    N2 - We present deep LOFAR observations between 120 and 181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening toward the south to . The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform (, with an intrinsic scatter of ). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of , assuming diffusive shock acceleration. However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio relic implies a much weaker shock (, with an upper limit of ). The discrepancy between the Mach numbers calculated from the radio and X-rays can be explained if either (i) the relic traces a complex shock surface along the line of sight, or (ii) if the radio relic emission is produced by a re-accelerated population of fossil particles from a radio galaxy. Our results highlight the need for additional theoretical work and numerical simulations of particle acceleration and re-acceleration at cluster merger shocks.

    AB - We present deep LOFAR observations between 120 and 181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening toward the south to . The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform (, with an intrinsic scatter of ). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of , assuming diffusive shock acceleration. However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio relic implies a much weaker shock (, with an upper limit of ). The discrepancy between the Mach numbers calculated from the radio and X-rays can be explained if either (i) the relic traces a complex shock surface along the line of sight, or (ii) if the radio relic emission is produced by a re-accelerated population of fossil particles from a radio galaxy. Our results highlight the need for additional theoretical work and numerical simulations of particle acceleration and re-acceleration at cluster merger shocks.

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    KW - galaxies: clusters: individual (RX J0603.3+4214)

    KW - galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium

    KW - largescale structure of universe

    KW - radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

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