Locating the extrema of fungible regression weights

Niels G. Waller, Jeff A. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


In a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors, every set of alternate weights belongs to an infinite class of "fungible weights" (Waller, Psychometrica, in press) that yields identical SSE (sum of squared errors) and R2 values. When the R2 using the alternate weights is a fixed value, fungible weights (ai) that yield the maximum or minimum cosine with an OLS weight vector (b) are called "fungible extrema." We describe two methods for locating fungible extrema and we report R code (R Development Core Team, 2007) for one of the methods. We then describe a new approach for populating a class of fungible weights that is derived from the geometry of alternate regression weights. Finally, we illustrate how fungible weights can be profitably used to gauge parameter sensitivity in linear models by locating the fungible extrema of a regression model of executive compensation (Horton & Guerard, Commun. Stat. Simul. Comput. 14:441-448, 1985).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)589-602
Number of pages14
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009


  • Alternate weights
  • Fungible weights
  • Multiple regression
  • Parameter sensitivity


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