Localized in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain

Rolf Gruetter, Gregor Adriany, In Young Choi, Pierre Gilles Henry, Hongxia Lei, Gülin Öz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

120 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Localized 13C NMR spectroscopy provides a new investigative tool for studying cerebral metabolism. The application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to living intact humans and animals presents the investigator with a number of unique challenges. This review provides in the first part a tutorial insight into the ingredients required for achieving a successful implementation of localized 13C NMR spectroscopy. The difficulties in establishing 13C NMR are the need for decoupling of the one-bond 13C-1H heteronuclear J coupling, the large chemical shift range, the low sensitivity and the need for localization of the signals. The methodological consequences of these technical problems are discussed, particularly with respect to (a) RF front-end considerations, (b) localization methods, (c) the low sensitivity, and (d) quantification methods. Lastly, some achievements of in vivo localized 13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain are reviewed, such as: (a) the measurement of brain glutamine synthesis and the feasibility of quantifying glutamatergic action in the brain; (b) the demonstration of significant anaplerotic fluxes in the brain; (c) the demonstration of a highly regulated malate-aspartate shuttle in brain energy metabolism and isotope flux; (d) quantification of neuronal and glial energy metabolism; and (e) brain glycogen metabolism in hypoglycemia in rats and humans. We conclude that the unique and novel insights provided by 13C NMR spectroscopy have opened many new research areas that are likely to improve the understanding of brain carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-338
Number of pages26
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Volume16
Issue number6-7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003

Fingerprint

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Brain
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Metabolism
Energy Metabolism
Demonstrations
Fluxes
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Chemical shift
Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Glutamine
Glycogen
Hypoglycemia
Aspartic Acid
Neuroglia
Isotopes
Rats
Animals
Research Personnel
Nuclear magnetic resonance

Keywords

  • Anaplerosis
  • Brain glycogen
  • C NMR
  • Glucose
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Localization
  • Neurotransmission

Cite this

Localized in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain. / Gruetter, Rolf; Adriany, Gregor; Choi, In Young; Henry, Pierre Gilles; Lei, Hongxia; Öz, Gülin.

In: NMR in biomedicine, Vol. 16, No. 6-7, 01.10.2003, p. 313-338.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Gruetter, R, Adriany, G, Choi, IY, Henry, PG, Lei, H & Öz, G 2003, 'Localized in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain', NMR in biomedicine, vol. 16, no. 6-7, pp. 313-338.
Gruetter, Rolf ; Adriany, Gregor ; Choi, In Young ; Henry, Pierre Gilles ; Lei, Hongxia ; Öz, Gülin. / Localized in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain. In: NMR in biomedicine. 2003 ; Vol. 16, No. 6-7. pp. 313-338.
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