We wished to identify the different types of retinal neurons on the basis of their content of neuroactive substances in both larval tiger salamander and mudpuppy retinas, favored species for electrophysiological investigation. Sections and wholemounts of retinas were labeled by immunocytochemical methods to demonstrate three calcium binding protein species and the common neurotransmitters, glycine, GABA and acetylcholine. Double immunostained sections and single labeled wholemount retinas were examined by confocal microscopy. Immunostaining patterns appeared to be the same in salamander and mudpuppy. Double and single cones, horizontal cells, some amacrine cells and ganglion cells were strongly calbindin-immunoreactive (IR). Calbindin-IR horizontal cells colocalized GABA. Many bipolar cells, horizontal cells, some amacrine cells and ganglion cells were strongly calretinin-IR. One type of horizontal cell and an infrequently occurring amacrine cell were parvalbumin-IR. Acetylcholine as visualized by ChAT-immunoreactivity was seen in a mirror-symmetric pair of amacrine cells that colocalized GABA and glycine. Glycine and GABA colocalized with calretinin, calbindin and occasionally with parvalbumin in amacrine cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by grants EY04855 (H.K.) and EY03014 (R.M.) and a grant to the Department of Ophthalmology from Research to Prevent Blindness. A fellowship from the Secretaria de Estado de Educacion Universidades, Investigacion y Desarrollo of Spain supported N.C.
- Confocal microscopy