Background: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. Methods: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver-related deaths in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study, which prospectively evaluated 76 893 person-years of follow- up in 23 441 HIV-infected persons. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses identified factors associated with liver-related, AIDS-related, and other causes of death. Results: There were 1246 deaths (5.3%; 1.6 per 100 person- years); 14.5% were from liver-related causes. Of these, 16.9% had active hepatitis B virus (HBV), 66.1% had hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 7.1% had dual viral hepatitis coinfections. Predictors of liver-related deaths were latest CD4 cell count (adjusted relative rate [RR], 16.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-31.7 for <50 vs >500/ μL), age (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4 per 5 years older), intravenous drug use (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4), HCV infection (RR, 6.7; 95% CI, 4.0-11.2), and active HBV infection (RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.4-5.9). Univariable analyses showed no relationship between cumulative years patients were receiving cART and liver-related death (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07). Adjustment for the most recent CD4 cell count and patient characteristics resulted in an increased risk of liver-related mortality per year of mono or dual antiretroviral therapy before cART (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; P=.008) and per year of cART (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21; P=.02). Conclusions: Liver-related death was the most frequent cause of non-AIDS-related death.Wefound a strong association between immunodeficiency and risk of liverrelated death. Longer follow-up is required to investigate whether clinically significant treatment-associated liver-related mortality will develop.