Sol-gel processing of transition metal oxide precursors has been used to produce porous materials of high surface area. The technique has permitted the synthesis of solid amorphous vanadium and manganese oxides that are capable of reversibly intercalating large amounts of lithium ions. Therefore, these materials may function as high capacity (500-600 mAh/g), high-energy positive electrodes in lithium batteries. Methods to improve the kinetics and the cycle performance of these positive electrodes are showing promise.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the US Army Research Office (DAA-H04-93-R-BAA10, subcontract from Minority Institute Research Hub at IIT) and the Department of Energy (DE-FG02-93ER14384) for the research on high-energy electrode materials.