Two liquid membranes are developed for moving chloride ions from low to higher concentration. The membranes use alkylammonium cations as mobile carriers which react with the diffusing anions. The size of the chloride flux is an elaborate but predictable function of chloride concentration. The energy for this flux comes from a simultaneous flux of hydroxide ions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grants ENG77-00981, GK32313 and by the Office of Saline Water Resources and Technology Grant 14-34-0001-6519. W.J.M. was supported by the Exxon Educational Foundation; C.P.W. by the Atomic Energy Council, Republic of China; and D.F.E. and E.L.C. by NIH Research Career Development Awards 5-K04-AM12972 and 5-K04-AM70461, respectively.