Background: Inhaled corticosteroids including fluticasone propionate (FP) are the most effective treatment for persistent-asthma. Noncompliance ranging from 20% to 80% of treated patients is associated with substantial health care costs, morbidity and fatalities. A noninvasive test to assess FP treatment compliance is needed. The major metabolite of FP is FP-17beta-carboxylic acid (FP17βCA) and is excreted in urine. This study demonstrates the development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to measure FP17βCA in urine and evaluation of FP17βCA urinary elimination. Experimental: Fluorometholone was used as the internal standard. After acetonitrile precipitation, samples were extracted with dichloromethane, washed and dried. Reconstituted extract (60 μL) was subjected to reversed-phase chromatography and positive-ion mode LC-MS/MS analysis. Assay precision, linearity, recovery and sample stability were determined. Elimination evaluation included measurement of FP17βCA in urine collected daily from human subjects before (day 1), during treatment (days 2-5; dose FP-110 μg 2 puffs/day), and following cessation of FP therapy (days 6-14; n = 4). Results: Linear range of the FP17βCA assay was 10.3-9510 pg/mL. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 10.3 pg/mL and recovery ranged from 85.8% to 111.9%. Inter-assay CVs were 7.4-12.0% for FP17βCA concentrations of 11.1-5117 pg/mL. Urine FP17βCA was absent in subjects prior to FP therapy, detectable (180-1991 ng FP17βCA/g creatinine) throughout the dosing period and reached below the LOQ at 6 days after therapy cessation. Conclusions: Measurement of FP17βCA by LC-MS/MS has acceptable analytical performance for clinical use. These data support the clinical utility of measuring FP17βCA in urine to monitor patient compliance with FP therapy.