Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of urinary [pyridine-D4]4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic Acid, a biomarker of 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone metabolic activation in smokers

Meng Jing, Yaohua Wang, Pramod Upadhyaya, Vipin Jain, Jian Min Yuan, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Stephen S. Hecht, Irina Stepanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-buta-none (NNK, 1) is a potent tobacco-specific lung carcinogen believed to play a key role in the development of lung cancer in smokers. Metabolic activation of NNK to DNA damaging reactive intermediates proceeds via α-hydroxylation pathways. The end products of these pathways are excreted in the urine of smokers as 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (keto acid, 3) and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid, 4). The sum of these biomarkers (after NaBH4 treatment), referred to as total hydroxy acid, could potentially be used to measure the extent of NNK metabolic activation in smokers. However, the same metabolites are formed from nicotine; therefore, there is a need to distinguish the NNK- and nicotine-derived keto and hydroxy acid in smokers' urine. We previously developed a unique methodology based on the use of [pyridine-D4]NNK ([D4]1), which metabolizes to the correspondingly labeled biomarkers. In this study, we developed a sensitive and reproducible assay for the detection and quantitation of total [pyridine-D4]hydroxy acid ([D4]4) in human urine. A two-step derivatization approach was used to convert [D4]4 to [pyridine-D4]methyl 4-hexanoyl-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoate ([D4]6), and an LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of this derivative with excellent sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The robustness and reproducibility of the assay was further confirmed by its application for the analysis of urine samples from 87 smokers who smoked [D4]1-containing cigarettes for 1 week. The measured level averaged 130 fmol/mL urine. The developed assay can be used in future studies that may require evaluation of the relative efficiency of NNK metabolic activation in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1547-1555
Number of pages9
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Volume27
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2014

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