Background: Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are established cardiovascular risk factors that correlate with each other. We hypothesized that other cardiovascular risk factors could affect their relationship. Methods: We tested for interactions of 24 study variables related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation and coagulation with baseline Lp(a) on change in CAC volume and density over 9.5 years in 5975 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants, free of apparent cardiovascular disease at baseline. Results: Elevated Lp(a) was associated with larger absolute increase in CAC volume (3.21 and 4.45 mm3/year higher for Lp(a) ≥30 versus <30 mg/dL, and Lp(a) ≥50 versus <50 mg/dL, respectively), but not relative change in CAC volume. No association was found with change in CAC density when assessing continuous ln-transformed Lp(a). The association between elevated Lp(a) (≥30 mg/dL) and absolute change in CAC volume was greater in participants with higher circulating levels of interleukin-2 soluble receptor α, soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1 and fibrinogen (15.33, 11.81 and 7.02 mm3/year in quartile 4, compared to −3.44, −0.59 and 1.91 mm3/year in quartile 1, respectively). No significant interaction was found for other study variables. Similar interactions were seen when assessing Lp(a) levels ≥50 mg/dL. Conclusions: Elevated Lp(a) was associated with an absolute increase in CAC volume, especially in participants with higher levels of selected markers of inflammation and coagulation. These results suggest Lp(a) as a potential biomarker for CAC volume progression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Kwok Leung Ong was supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship ( 1122854 ). The MESA study was supported by contracts 75N92020D00001 , HHSN268201500003I , N01-HC-95159 , 75N92020D00005 , N01-HC-95160 , 75N92020D00002 , N01-HC-95161 , 75N92020D00003 , N01-HC-95162 , 75N92020D00006 , N01-HC-95163 , 75N92020D00004 , N01-HC-95164 , 75N92020D00007 , N01-HC-95165 , N01-HC-95166 , N01-HC-95167 , N01-HC-95168 , and N01-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute , and by grants UL1-TR-000040 , UL1-TR-001079 , and UL1-TR-001420 from National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences . This publication was developed under the Science to Achieve Results (STAR) research assistance agreements, No. RD831697 (MESA Air) and RD-83830001 (MESA Air Next Stage), awarded by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It has not been formally reviewed by the EPA. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and the EPA does not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.
- Blood coagulation
- Coronary artery calcification
- Lipoprotein (a)
- Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article