Microbial adjuvants are essential for the development of T-cell-dependent antibody production, recall T-cell proliferation and interferon-γ production following immunization with protein antigens. Using an adoptive transfer approach, we showed that the adjuvant lipopolysaccharide enhanced the frequency of cells producing interleukin-2, enhanced clonal expansion by antigen-specific CD4 T cells and increased CD86 and interleukin-1α production by antigen-presenting cells. All of these effects were dependent on Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) expression by cells other than the antigen-specific CD4 T cells. The ability of lipopolysaccharides to increase the number of antigen-specific CD4 T cells that survive after immunization probably explains the previous finding that antigen-specific proliferation by T cells from normal mice depends on previous exposure to antigen and adjuvant.
- Cellular proliferation
- T lymphocytes