Background Prior work suggests that adult bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. This exploratory study examined markers of lipid and protein oxidation and inflammation in adolescents with and at varying risk for BD type I (BD-I). Methods Blood was obtained from four groups of adolescents (9-20 years of age): (1) healthy comparison subjects with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorders (n=13), (2) subjects with no psychiatric diagnosis and at least one parent with BD-I ('high-risk', n=15), (3) subjects with at least one parent with BD-I and a diagnosis of depressive disorder not-otherwise-specified ('ultra-high-risk', n=20), and (4) first-episode patients exhibiting mixed or manic symptoms that received a diagnosis of BD-I (n=16). Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LPH, 4-HNE, 8-ISO), protein carbonyl, and inflammation (IL-1α-β, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, TNFα) were assessed using analysis of variance and covariance models. Results LPH was lower in adolescents with fully syndromal BD than controls, while LPH levels in the at-risk groups were between healthy controls and fully syndromal BD. Post-hoc analysis showed a non-significant increase in the (4-HNE+8-ISO)/LPH ratio suggesting a potential conversion of LPH into late-stage markers of lipid peroxidation. There were no significant differences among protein carbonyl content and inflammatory markers. Conclusions In adolescents, fully syndromal BD is associated with significant reductions in LPH levels, and LPH levels decrease along the spectrum of risk for BD-I. Quantifying lipid peroxidation in longitudinal studies may help clarify the role of LPH in BD risk progression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by the Marriott Foundation and Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine. Dr. Scola is supported by the CAMH Foundation (Grant no. 1000109). Dr. Croarkin is supported by NIMH under Award number K23MH100266. Dr. DelBello and Dr. McNamara are supported by NIH/NIMH R34 MH081206 and Dr. DelBello is also supported by NIMH R01 MH080973.
- Adolescent bipolar disorder
- At-risk adolescents
- Lipid peroxidation
- Oxidative stress markers