Linkage analysis using direct and indirect counting and relative efficiencies for codominant and dominant loci

Y. Da, J. Garbe, N. London, J. Xu

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4 Scopus citations


A method based on direct and indirect counting is developed for rapid and accurate linkage analysis for codominant and dominant loci. Methods for estimating gender-specific recombination frequencies are available for cases where at least one of the two loci is multiallelic and for biallelic loci with mixed parental linkage phases where at least one locus is codominant. Most of the estimates of gender-average and gender-specific recombination frequencies required iterative solutions. The new method makes use of the full data set, yields exact estimates of the recombination frequencies when the observed and expected genotypic frequencies are equal, and are computationally efficient. Relative efficiency of various data types is affected by the inheritance mode and by parental linkage phases of biallelic loci, but unaffected by the locus polymorphism when using the full data set for linkage analysis. The ability to determine parental linkage phases is affected by the locus polymorphism as well as inheritance mode. Intercross (or F-2 design) is more efficient for mapping codominant loci, whereas backcross is more efficient if dominance is involved. Mixed parental linkage phases of biallelic loci are less efficient than coupling or repulsion linkage phases. Ignoring noninformative offspring results in biased estimates of recombination frequency for biallelic loci only and reduced LOD scores for all cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2528-2539
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2002


  • Codominance
  • Dominance
  • Linkage Analysis
  • Loci


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