TY - JOUR

T1 - Linear regression with an independent variable subject to a detection limit

AU - Nie, Lei

AU - Chu, Haitao

AU - Liu, Chenglong

AU - Cole, Stephen R.

AU - Vexler, Albert

AU - Schisterman, Enrique F.

PY - 2010/7

Y1 - 2010/7

N2 - Background: Linear regression with a left-censored independent variable X due to limit of detection (LOD) was recently considered by 2 groups of researchers: Richardson and Ciampi (Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:355-363), and Schisterman et al (Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:374-383). Methods: Both groups obtained consistent estimators for the regression slopes by replacing left-censored X with a constant, that is, the expectation of X given X below LOD E(X|X<LOD) in the former group and the sample mean of X given X above LOD in the latter. Results: Schisterman et al argued that their approach would be a better choice because the sample mean of X given X above LOD is available, whereas E(X|X<LOD) is unknown. Other substitution methods, such as replacing the left-censored values with LOD, or LOD/2,have been extensively used in the literature. Simulations were conducted to compare the performance under 2 scenarios in which the independent variable is normally and not normally distributed. Conclusion: Recommendations are given based on theoretical and simulation results. These recommendations are illustrated with one case study.

AB - Background: Linear regression with a left-censored independent variable X due to limit of detection (LOD) was recently considered by 2 groups of researchers: Richardson and Ciampi (Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:355-363), and Schisterman et al (Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:374-383). Methods: Both groups obtained consistent estimators for the regression slopes by replacing left-censored X with a constant, that is, the expectation of X given X below LOD E(X|X<LOD) in the former group and the sample mean of X given X above LOD in the latter. Results: Schisterman et al argued that their approach would be a better choice because the sample mean of X given X above LOD is available, whereas E(X|X<LOD) is unknown. Other substitution methods, such as replacing the left-censored values with LOD, or LOD/2,have been extensively used in the literature. Simulations were conducted to compare the performance under 2 scenarios in which the independent variable is normally and not normally distributed. Conclusion: Recommendations are given based on theoretical and simulation results. These recommendations are illustrated with one case study.

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U2 - 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181ce97d8

DO - 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181ce97d8

M3 - Article

C2 - 21422965

AN - SCOPUS:77953878539

VL - 21

SP - S17-S24

JO - Epidemiology

JF - Epidemiology

SN - 1044-3983

IS - SUPPL. 4

ER -