Linear Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Despite advances in care, preterm infants exhibit disproportionate growth and neurodevelopmental delay attributable to both nutritional and nonnutritional factors. These infants have prolonged linear stunting and decreased fat-free mass compared with their term counterparts. These 2 metrics index organ growth and development (including the brain) and protein accretion. Protein, along with carbohydrates, fats, and zinc, plays key roles in brain development, and deficiencies can lead to linear growth failure, abnormalities in the growth hormone axis, and developmental delay. Optimization of nutrition, including protein intake, decreasing inflammatory episodes, and enhancing the growth hormone axis will likely improve long-term outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-321
Number of pages13
JournalClinics in Perinatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Fat-free mass
  • Inflammation
  • Linear growth
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Outcomes
  • Premature infants
  • Very low birth weight


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