Objective: Deficient bony ridges often complicate the implant treatment plan. Several treatment modalities are used to regenerate bone, including guided bone regeneration (GBR). The purpose of this study was to summarize the knowledge on different types of membranes available and currently used in GBR procedures in a staged approach or with simultaneous implant placement. The primary role of the membranes is to exclude epithelial and connective tissue cells from the wound area to be regenerated, and to create and maintain the space into which pluripotential and osteogenic cells are free to migrate. Data Sources: A literature search was performed for articles that were published in English on the topic. A selected number of studies were chosen in order to provide a review of the main characteristics, applications, and outcomes of the different types of membranes. Resorbable membranes are made of natural or synthetic polymers like collagen and aliphatic polyesters. Collagens are the most common type used. They have similar collagen composition to the periodontal connective tissue. Other materials available include human, porcine, and bovine pericardium membranes, human amnion and chorion tissue, and human acellular freeze-dried dermal matrix. Nonresorbable membranes used in GBR include dense-polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE), expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE), titanium mesh, and titanium-reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene. Conclusions: The most common complication of nonresorbable membranes is exposure, which has detrimental effect on the final outcome with both types of membranes. For vertical bone augmentation procedures, the most appropriate membranes are the nonresorbable. For combination defects, both types result in a successful outcome.
- Alveolar ridge augmentation