The past four decades have seen tremendous progress in the treatment of pediatric and adolescent cancers. As a consequence, there are increasing numbers of adult childhood cancer survivors. This has prompted investigation into the long-term consequences of cancer treatments. One group that merits special study is the survivors of lower-extremity bone tumors. Their function and quality of life may depend in part on both the surgery and the age at which it was performed. Comparisons between studies are difficult because small numbers of patients and the use of varying research designs and methods have limited research in this area. The purpose of this article is to review the major surgical approaches to lower-limb bone tumors and their impact on pediatric patients. The results show that survival is equivalent between amputation and limb salvage. Complications occur more frequently in limb salvage. The long-term outcomes of those undergoing amputation and limb salvage have not been found to be substantially different in regard to quality of life. In conclusion, prospective long-term follow-up of pediatric patients with lower-limb tumors is needed to (1) determine in a uniform manner the long-term complications, quality of life, and functionality of this population and describe differences within this patient population based on age at diagnosis and surgical procedure, (2) identify areas of concern that are amenable to intervention, and (3) provide clinicians and future patients a better understanding of the surgical options.