Lifetime Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Two Cohort Studies

Elizabeth J. Bell, Pamela L. Lutsey, Saonli Basu, Mary Cushman, Susan R. Heckbert, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Aaron R. Folsom

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65 Scopus citations


Background Greater public awareness of venous thromboembolism may be an important next step for optimizing venous thromboembolism prevention and treatment. "Lifetime risk" is an easily interpretable way of presenting risk information. Therefore, we sought to calculate the lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) using data from 2 large, prospective cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods We followed participants aged 45-64 years in ARIC (n = 14,185) and ≥65 in CHS (n = 5414) at baseline visits (1987-1989 in ARIC, 1989-1990 and 1992-1993 in CHS) for incident venous thromboembolism (n = 728 in ARIC through 2011 and n = 172 in CHS through 2001). We estimated lifetime risks and 95% confidence intervals of incident venous thromboembolism using a modified Kaplan-Meier method, accounting for the competing risk of death from other causes. Results At age 45 years, the remaining lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism in ARIC was 8.1% (95% confidence interval, 7.1-8.7). High-risk groups were African Americans (11.5% lifetime risk), those with obesity (10.9%), heterozygous for the factor V Leiden (17.1%), or with sickle cell trait or disease (18.2%). Lifetime risk estimates differed by cohort; these differences were explained by differences in time period of venous thromboembolism ascertainment. Conclusions At least 1 in 12 middle-aged adults will develop venous thromboembolism in their remaining lifetime. This estimate of lifetime risk may be useful to promote awareness of venous thromboembolism and guide decisions at both clinical and policy levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)339.e19-339.e26
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) contracts (HHSN268201100005C, HHSN268201100006C, HHSN268201100007C, HHSN268201100008C, HHSN268201100009C, HHSN268201100010C, HHSN268201100011C, and HHSN268201100012C). The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) was supported by contracts HHSN268201200036C, HHSN268200800007C, N01HC55222, N01HC85079, N01HC85080, N01HC85081, N01HC85082, N01HC85083, N01HC85086, and grant U01HL080295 from the NHLBI , with additional contribution from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Additional support was provided by R01AG023629 from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Investigator EJB was supported by NHLBI training grant T32HL007779 . This content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Embolism
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk factors
  • Thrombosis


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