Leveraging technology: A multi-component personalized system of instruction to teach sight words

Stephanie M. Hammerschmidt-Snidarich, Lynn M. Edwards, Theodore J. Christ, Andrew J. Thayer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Technology-enabled personalized systems of instruction (PSI) could streamline resource-intensive instructional strategies, potentially easing their delivery and accelerating student learning. This study evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of a PSI that incorporated adaptive assessment, incremental rehearsal, and peer-assisted learning to teach sight words. Participants in grades 1–3 were randomly assigned to either a control condition or treatment condition. In the treatment condition, participants engaged in the PSI in dyads, working at their instructional level with minimal adult supervision. Compared to the control condition, target learners engaging in the PSI acquired previously unknown sight words, then maintained and generalized the words 30 days post-intervention with a moderate main effect (β = 0.28). On average, participants rated the PSI as positive or very positive. The potential for PSIs to make instructional activities more efficient, effective, and individualized is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-171
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of school psychology
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • Computers and learning
  • Incremental rehearsal
  • Instructional technology
  • Peer-assisted learning
  • Personalized instruction
  • Sight words

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial


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