Legitimization of Regulatory Norms: Waterfowl Hunter Acceptance of Changing Duck Bag Limits

Susan A. Schroeder, David C. Fulton, Jeffrey S. Lawrence, Steven D. Cordts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters' attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit "too high" and a smaller proportion rated it "too low." Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was "too high" had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)234-252
Number of pages19
JournalHuman Dimensions of Wildlife
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2014


  • Minnesota
  • attitudes
  • bag limits
  • ducks
  • hunters
  • legal norms
  • opinions
  • regulations
  • waterfowl


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