Learning a second language in first language environments

E. Bernhardt, D. J. Tedick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This article traces curriculum developments in language teaching since the mid-1970s. The 1970s were chosen because they denote a time of massive global movement of immigration and expatriation that carried with it a profound impact on language education. The time frame also coincides with an awakening of research in sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and second-language acquisition. The article places language learning against a backdrop of these research thrusts as well as against global political, economic, and technological forces. Key themes discussed are notions of doing and meaning, proficiency orientations; content-based language instruction; and immersion models for language acquisition.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Education
EditorsE. Baker, P. Peterson, B. McGaw
Place of PublicationOxford, UK
Number of pages6
Edition3rd Edition
ISBN (Print)9780080448947
StatePublished - 2010


  • Common european framework
  • Content and language integrated learning (CLIL)
  • Content-based instruction (CBI)
  • Foreign language
  • Immersion
  • Languages other than english (LOTE)
  • Non-native teachers
  • Proficiency
  • Second-language acquisition
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Standards
  • Teacher education and development


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