PURPOSE: To describe trajectories in level of supervision ratings for linked entrustable professional activities (EPAs) among pediatric learners in medical school, residency, fellowship. METHOD: The authors performed secondary analyses of 3 linked datasets of level of supervision ratings for the Core EPAs for Entering Residency, the General Pediatrics EPAs, and the Subspecialty Pediatrics EPAs. After identifying 9 activities in common across training stages and aligning the level of entrustment-supervision scales across the datasets, piecewise ordinal and linear mixed effects models were fitted to characterize trajectories of supervision ratings. RESULTS: Within each training period, learners were rated as needing less supervision over time in each activity. When transitioning from medical school to residency or during the first year of residency, learners were rated as needing greater supervision in activities related to patient management, teamwork, emergent care, and public health/QI than in earlier periods. When transitioning from residency to fellowship, learners were always rated as needing greater supervision than they had been accorded at the end of residency and sometimes even more than they had been accorded at the start of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Although development over training is often imagined as continuous and monotonically increasing competence, this study provides empirical evidence supporting the idea that entrustment is a set of discrete decisions. The relaxation of supervision in training is not a linear process. Even with a seamless curriculum, supervision is tightly bound to the training setting. Several explanations for these findings are discussed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges|
|State||Published - Jul 1 2021|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2021 by the Association of American Medical Colleges.
- Clinical Competence
- Competency-Based Education
- Education, Medical, Graduate
- Education, Medical, Undergraduate
- Fellowships and Scholarships
- Internship and Residency
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't